skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Beyond Iron: Iridium-Containing P450 Enzymes for Selective Cyclopropanations of Structurally Diverse Alkenes

Abstract

Enzymes catalyze organic transformations with exquisite levels of selectivity, including chemoselectivity, stereoselectivity, and substrate selectivity, but the types of reactions catalyzed by enzymes are more limited than those of chemical catalysts. Thus, the convergence of chemical catalysis and biocatalysis can enable enzymatic systems to catalyze abiological reactions with high selectivity. Recently, we disclosed artificial enzymes constructed from the apo form of heme proteins and iridium porphyrins that catalyze the insertion of carbenes into a C-H bond. Here, we postulated that the same type of Ir(Me)-PIX enzymes could catalyze the cyclopropanation of a broad range of alkenes with control of multiple modes of selectivity. Here, we report the evolution of artificial enzymes that are highly active and highly stereoselective for the addition of carbenes to a wide range of alkenes. These enzymes catalyze the cyclopropanation of terminal and internal, activated and unactivated, electron-rich and electron-deficient, conjugated and nonconjugated alkenes. In particular, Ir(Me)-PIX enzymes derived from CYP119 catalyze highly enantio- and diastereoselective cyclopropanations of styrene with ±98% ee, > 70:1 dr, > 75% yield, and ~10,000 turnovers (TON), as well as 1,2-disubstituted styrenes with up to 99% ee, 35:1 dr, and 54% yield. Moreover, Ir(Me)-PIX enzymes catalyze cyclopropanation of internal, unactivated alkenesmore » with up to 99% stereoselectivity, 76% yield, and 1300 TON. They also catalyze cyclopropanation of natural products with diastereoselectivities that are complementary to those attained with standard transition metal catalysts. Finally, Ir(Me)-PIX P450 variants react with substrate selectivity that is reminiscent of natural enzymes; they react preferentially with less reactive internal alkenes in the presence of more reactive terminal alkenes. Altogether, the studies reveal the suitability of Ir-containing P450s to combine the broad reactivity and substrate scope of transition metal catalysts with the exquisite selectivity of enzymes, generating catalysts that enable reactions to occur with levels and modes of activity and selectivity previously unattainable with natural enzymes or transition metal complexes alone.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  3. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1349533
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1411658
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
ACS Central Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2374-7943
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Key, Hanna M., Dydio, Paweł, Liu, Zhennan, Rha, Jennifer Y. -E., Nazarenko, Andrew, Seyedkazemi, Vida, Clark, Douglas S., and Hartwig, John F. Beyond Iron: Iridium-Containing P450 Enzymes for Selective Cyclopropanations of Structurally Diverse Alkenes. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acscentsci.6b00391.
Key, Hanna M., Dydio, Paweł, Liu, Zhennan, Rha, Jennifer Y. -E., Nazarenko, Andrew, Seyedkazemi, Vida, Clark, Douglas S., & Hartwig, John F. Beyond Iron: Iridium-Containing P450 Enzymes for Selective Cyclopropanations of Structurally Diverse Alkenes. United States. doi:10.1021/acscentsci.6b00391.
Key, Hanna M., Dydio, Paweł, Liu, Zhennan, Rha, Jennifer Y. -E., Nazarenko, Andrew, Seyedkazemi, Vida, Clark, Douglas S., and Hartwig, John F. Sat . "Beyond Iron: Iridium-Containing P450 Enzymes for Selective Cyclopropanations of Structurally Diverse Alkenes". United States. doi:10.1021/acscentsci.6b00391.
@article{osti_1349533,
title = {Beyond Iron: Iridium-Containing P450 Enzymes for Selective Cyclopropanations of Structurally Diverse Alkenes},
author = {Key, Hanna M. and Dydio, Paweł and Liu, Zhennan and Rha, Jennifer Y. -E. and Nazarenko, Andrew and Seyedkazemi, Vida and Clark, Douglas S. and Hartwig, John F.},
abstractNote = {Enzymes catalyze organic transformations with exquisite levels of selectivity, including chemoselectivity, stereoselectivity, and substrate selectivity, but the types of reactions catalyzed by enzymes are more limited than those of chemical catalysts. Thus, the convergence of chemical catalysis and biocatalysis can enable enzymatic systems to catalyze abiological reactions with high selectivity. Recently, we disclosed artificial enzymes constructed from the apo form of heme proteins and iridium porphyrins that catalyze the insertion of carbenes into a C-H bond. Here, we postulated that the same type of Ir(Me)-PIX enzymes could catalyze the cyclopropanation of a broad range of alkenes with control of multiple modes of selectivity. Here, we report the evolution of artificial enzymes that are highly active and highly stereoselective for the addition of carbenes to a wide range of alkenes. These enzymes catalyze the cyclopropanation of terminal and internal, activated and unactivated, electron-rich and electron-deficient, conjugated and nonconjugated alkenes. In particular, Ir(Me)-PIX enzymes derived from CYP119 catalyze highly enantio- and diastereoselective cyclopropanations of styrene with ±98% ee, > 70:1 dr, > 75% yield, and ~10,000 turnovers (TON), as well as 1,2-disubstituted styrenes with up to 99% ee, 35:1 dr, and 54% yield. Moreover, Ir(Me)-PIX enzymes catalyze cyclopropanation of internal, unactivated alkenes with up to 99% stereoselectivity, 76% yield, and 1300 TON. They also catalyze cyclopropanation of natural products with diastereoselectivities that are complementary to those attained with standard transition metal catalysts. Finally, Ir(Me)-PIX P450 variants react with substrate selectivity that is reminiscent of natural enzymes; they react preferentially with less reactive internal alkenes in the presence of more reactive terminal alkenes. Altogether, the studies reveal the suitability of Ir-containing P450s to combine the broad reactivity and substrate scope of transition metal catalysts with the exquisite selectivity of enzymes, generating catalysts that enable reactions to occur with levels and modes of activity and selectivity previously unattainable with natural enzymes or transition metal complexes alone.},
doi = {10.1021/acscentsci.6b00391},
journal = {ACS Central Science},
number = 4,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1021/acscentsci.6b00391

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 5works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:
  • Enzymes catalyze organic transformations with exquisite levels of selectivity, including chemoselectivity, stereoselectivity, and substrate selectivity, but the types of reactions catalyzed by enzymes are more limited than those of chemical catalysts. Thus, the convergence of chemical catalysis and biocatalysis can enable enzymatic systems to catalyze abiological reactions with high selectivity. Recently, we disclosed artificial enzymes constructed from the apo form of heme proteins and iridium porphyrins that catalyze the insertion of carbenes into a C-H bond. Here, we postulated that the same type of Ir(Me)-PIX enzymes could catalyze the cyclopropanation of a broad range of alkenes with control of multiplemore » modes of selectivity. Here, we report the evolution of artificial enzymes that are highly active and highly stereoselective for the addition of carbenes to a wide range of alkenes. These enzymes catalyze the cyclopropanation of terminal and internal, activated and unactivated, electron-rich and electron-deficient, conjugated and nonconjugated alkenes. In particular, Ir(Me)-PIX enzymes derived from CYP119 catalyze highly enantio- and diastereoselective cyclopropanations of styrene with ±98% ee, > 70:1 dr, > 75% yield, and ~10,000 turnovers (TON), as well as 1,2-disubstituted styrenes with up to 99% ee, 35:1 dr, and 54% yield. Moreover, Ir(Me)-PIX enzymes catalyze cyclopropanation of internal, unactivated alkenes with up to 99% stereoselectivity, 76% yield, and 1300 TON. They also catalyze cyclopropanation of natural products with diastereoselectivities that are complementary to those attained with standard transition metal catalysts. Finally, Ir(Me)-PIX P450 variants react with substrate selectivity that is reminiscent of natural enzymes; they react preferentially with less reactive internal alkenes in the presence of more reactive terminal alkenes. Altogether, the studies reveal the suitability of Ir-containing P450s to combine the broad reactivity and substrate scope of transition metal catalysts with the exquisite selectivity of enzymes, generating catalysts that enable reactions to occur with levels and modes of activity and selectivity previously unattainable with natural enzymes or transition metal complexes alone.« less
  • Four (CYP195A2, CYP199A2, CYP203A1, and CYP153A5) of the seven P450 enzymes, and palustrisredoxin A, a ferredoxin associated with CYP199A2, from the metabolically diverse bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris have been expressed and purified. A range of substituted benzenes, phenols, benzaldehydes, and benzoic acids was shown to bind to the four P450 enzymes. Monooxygenase activity of CYP199A2 was reconstituted with palustrisredoxin A and putidaredoxin reductase of the P450cam system from Pseudomonas putida. We found that 4-ethylbenzoate and 4-methoxybenzoate were oxidized to single products, and 4-methoxybenzoate was demethylated to form 4-hydroxybenzoate. Crystals of substrate-free CYP199A2 which diffracted to {approx}2.0 A have been obtained.
  • The reactions of the cis-hydride {eta}{sup 2}-dihydrogen complex [(PP{sub 3})Fe(H)(N{sub 2})]BPh{sub 4}(1) and of the dinitrogen derivative [(PP{sub 3})Fe(H)(N{sub 2})] BPh{sub 4} (2) with a variety of 1-alkynes have been investigated. From this study, it is apparent that the insertion of the alkyne across the Fe-H bond in 1 to give a {sigma}-alkenyl intermediate proceeds via decoordination of a phosphine arm of PP{sub 3} rather than via H{sub 2} decoordination. Terminal alkynes are selectively and catalytically hydrogenated to alkenes by 1 in tetrahydrofuran or 1,2-dichloroethane solutions under mild conditions. A kinetic study on the hydrogenation reaction of HC=CPh to H{submore » 2}C=CHPh has shown that the reduction is first order in catalyst and alkyne concentrations and zero order in hydrogen pressure. Incorporation of a large body of experimental data leads to the conclusion that (1) the dihydrogen ligand does not leave the metal prior to alkyne coordination and (2) the reduction of the substrate most likely occurs via an intramolecular acid/base reaction involving {eta}{sup 2}-H{sub 2} and {sigma}-vinyl ligands mutally cis disposed. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.« less
  • The kidney is a primary target for numerous toxic compounds. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) are responsible for the metabolic activation of various chemical compounds, and in the kidney are predominantly expressed in proximal tubules. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that renal proximal tubular P450s are critical for nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals such as chloroform. We developed two new mouse models, one having proximal tubule-specific deletion of the cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) gene (the enzyme required for all microsomal P450 activities), designated proximal tubule-Cpr-null (PTCN), and the other having proximal tubule-specific rescue of CPR activity withmore » the global suppression of CPR activity in all extra-proximal tubular tissues, designated extra-proximal tubule-Cpr-low (XPT-CL). The PTCN, XPT-CL, Cpr-low (CL), and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with a single oral dose of chloroform at 200 mg/kg. Blood, liver and kidney samples were obtained at 24 h after the treatment. Renal toxicity was assessed by measuring BUN and creatinine levels, and by pathological examination. The blood and tissue levels of chloroform were determined. The severity of toxicity was less in PTCN and CL mice, compared with that of WT and XPT-CL mice. There were no significant differences in chloroform levels in the blood, liver, or kidney, between PTCN and WT mice, or between XPT-CL and CL mice. These findings indicate that local P450-dependent activities play an important role in the nephrotoxicity induced by chloroform. Our results also demonstrate the usefulness of these novel mouse models for studies of chemical-induced kidney toxicity. - Highlights: • New mouse models were developed with varying P450 activities in the proximal tubule. • These mouse models were treated with chloroform, a nephrotoxicant. • Studies showed the importance of local P450s in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity.« less
  • The metazoan cell membrane is highly organized. Maintaining such organization and preserving membrane integrity under different conditions are accomplished through intracellular tethering to an extensive, flexible protein network. Spectrin, the principal component of this network, is attached to the membrane through the adaptor protein ankyrin, which directly bridges the interaction between {beta}-spectrin and membrane proteins. Ankyrins have a modular structure that includes two tandem ZU5 domains. The first domain, ZU5A, is directly responsible for binding {beta}-spectrin. Here, we present a structure of the tandem ZU5 repeats of human erythrocyte ankyrin. Structural and biophysical experiments show that the second ZU5 domain,more » ZU5B, does not participate in spectrin binding. ZU5B is structurally similar to the ZU5 domain found in the netrin receptor UNC5b supramodule, suggesting that it could interact with other domains in ankyrin. Comparison of several ZU5 domains demonstrates that the ZU5 domain represents a compact and versatile protein interaction module.« less