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Title: Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

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Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Fuel Cell Technologies Office (EE-3F)
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Grant/Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 279; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-06-01 03:25:16; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Country of Publication:

Citation Formats

Semelsberger, Troy A., and Brooks, Kriston P.. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications. Netherlands: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.01.040.
Semelsberger, Troy A., & Brooks, Kriston P.. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.01.040.
Semelsberger, Troy A., and Brooks, Kriston P.. 2015. "Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.01.040.
title = {Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications},
author = {Semelsberger, Troy A. and Brooks, Kriston P.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.01.040},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = C,
volume = 279,
place = {Netherlands},
year = 2015,
month = 4

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.01.040

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 8works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kg system), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/L system). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storagemore » material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material propertiesdand most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.« less
  • Material properties required for on-board hydrogen storage in cryogenic sorbents for use with automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are discussed. Models are formulated for physical, thermodynamic and transport properties, and for the dynamics of H-2 refueling and discharge from a sorbent bed. A conceptual storage configuration with in-bed heat exchanger tubes, a Type-3 containment vessel, vacuum insulation and requisite balance-of-plant components is developed to determine the peak excess sorption capacity and differential enthalpy of adsorption for 5.5 wt% system gravimetric capacity and 55% well-to-tank (WTT) efficiency. The analysis also determines the bulk density to which the materialmore » must be compacted for the storage system to reach 40 g.L-1 volumetric capacity. Thermal transport properties and heat transfer enhancement methods are analyzed to estimate the material thermal conductivity needed to achieve 1.5 kg.min(-1) H-2 refueling rate. Operating temperatures and pressures are determined for 55% WTT efficiency and 95% usable H-2. Needs for further improvements in material properties are analyzed that would allow reduction of storage pressure to 50 bar from 100 bar, elevation of storage temperature to 175-200 K from 150 K, and increase of WTT efficiency to 57.5% or higher.« less
  • In this paper, the system designs for hydrogen storage using chemical hydrogen materials in an 80 kWe fuel cell, light-duty vehicle are described. Ammonia borane and alane are used for these designs to represent the general classes of exothermic and endothermic materials. The designs are then compared to the USDRIVE/DOE developed set of system level targets for on-board storage. While most of the DOE targets are predicted to be achieved based on the modeling, the system gravimetric and volumetric densities were more challenging and became the focus of this work. The resulting system evaluation determined that the slurry is majoritymore » of the system mass. Only modest reductions in the system mass can be expected with improvements in the balance of plant components. Most of the gravimetric improvements will require developing materials with higher inherent storage capacity or by increasing the solids loading of the chemical hydrogen storage material in the slurry.« less
  • Among candidates for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell automotive applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) is considered to be one of the most promising materials due to its high practical hydrogen content of 14-16 wt%. This material is selected as a surrogate chemical for a hydrogen storage system. For easier transition to the existing infrastructure, a fluid phase hydrogen storage material is very attractive and thus, we investigated the engineering materials properties of AB in liquid carriers for a chemical hydrogen storage slurry system. Slurries composed of AB and high temperature liquids were prepared by mechanical milling and sonicationmore » in order to obtain stable and fluidic properties. Volumetric gas burette system was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the AB slurry and neat AB. Viscometry and microscopy were employed to further characterize slurries engineering properties. Using a tip-sonication method we have produced AB/silicone fluid slurries at solid loadings up to 40wt% (6.5wt% H2) with viscosities less than 500cP at 25°C.« less