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Title: Reinventing Design Principles for Developing Low-Viscosity Carbon Dioxide-Binding Organic Liquids for Flue Gas Clean Up

Abstract

Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2) emission from point sources, such as coal fired-power plants, account for the majority of the green houses gasses in the atmosphere. Capture, storage and utilization are required to mitigate adverse environmental effects. Aqueous amine-based CO 2 capture solvents are currently considered the industry standard, but deployment to market is limited by their high regeneration energy demand. In that context, energy efficient and less-viscous water-lean transformational solvent systems known as CO 2 Binding Organic Liquids (CO 2BOLs) are being developed in our group to advance this technology to commercialization. Herein, we present a logical design approach based on fundamental concepts of organic chemistry and computer simulations aimed at lowering solvent viscosity. Conceptually, viscosity reduction would be achieved by systemmatic methods such as introduction of steric hindrance on the anion to minimize the intermolecular cation-anion interactions, fine tuning the electronics, hydrogen bonding orientation and strength, and charge solvation. Conventional standard trial-and-error approaches while effective, are time consuming and economically expensive. Herein, we rethink the metrics and design principles of low-viscosity CO 2 capture solvents using a combined synthesis and computational modeling approach. We critically study the impacts of modyfying factors such as as orientation of hydrogen bonding,more » introduction of higher degrees of freedom and cation or anion charge solvation and assess if or how each factor impacts viscosity of CO 2BOL CO 2 capture solvents. Ultimately, we found that hydrogen bond orientation and strength is predominantly influencing the viscosity in CO 2BOL solvents. With this knowledge, a new 1-MEIPADM-2-BOL CO 2BOL variant was synthesized and tested, resulting in a solvent that is approximately 60% less viscous at 25 mol% CO 2 loading with respect to our base compound 1-IPADM-2-BOL. The insights gained from the current study redefines the fundamental concepts and understanding of what influences viscosity in concentrated organic CO 2 capture solvents.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1344632
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-121959
Journal ID: ISSN 1864-5631; AA6510000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: ChemSusChem; Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

None, None. Reinventing Design Principles for Developing Low-Viscosity Carbon Dioxide-Binding Organic Liquids for Flue Gas Clean Up. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/cssc.201601622.
None, None. Reinventing Design Principles for Developing Low-Viscosity Carbon Dioxide-Binding Organic Liquids for Flue Gas Clean Up. United States. doi:10.1002/cssc.201601622.
None, None. Wed . "Reinventing Design Principles for Developing Low-Viscosity Carbon Dioxide-Binding Organic Liquids for Flue Gas Clean Up". United States. doi:10.1002/cssc.201601622.
@article{osti_1344632,
title = {Reinventing Design Principles for Developing Low-Viscosity Carbon Dioxide-Binding Organic Liquids for Flue Gas Clean Up},
author = {None, None},
abstractNote = {Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from point sources, such as coal fired-power plants, account for the majority of the green houses gasses in the atmosphere. Capture, storage and utilization are required to mitigate adverse environmental effects. Aqueous amine-based CO2 capture solvents are currently considered the industry standard, but deployment to market is limited by their high regeneration energy demand. In that context, energy efficient and less-viscous water-lean transformational solvent systems known as CO2 Binding Organic Liquids (CO2BOLs) are being developed in our group to advance this technology to commercialization. Herein, we present a logical design approach based on fundamental concepts of organic chemistry and computer simulations aimed at lowering solvent viscosity. Conceptually, viscosity reduction would be achieved by systemmatic methods such as introduction of steric hindrance on the anion to minimize the intermolecular cation-anion interactions, fine tuning the electronics, hydrogen bonding orientation and strength, and charge solvation. Conventional standard trial-and-error approaches while effective, are time consuming and economically expensive. Herein, we rethink the metrics and design principles of low-viscosity CO2 capture solvents using a combined synthesis and computational modeling approach. We critically study the impacts of modyfying factors such as as orientation of hydrogen bonding, introduction of higher degrees of freedom and cation or anion charge solvation and assess if or how each factor impacts viscosity of CO2BOL CO2 capture solvents. Ultimately, we found that hydrogen bond orientation and strength is predominantly influencing the viscosity in CO2BOL solvents. With this knowledge, a new 1-MEIPADM-2-BOL CO2BOL variant was synthesized and tested, resulting in a solvent that is approximately 60% less viscous at 25 mol% CO2 loading with respect to our base compound 1-IPADM-2-BOL. The insights gained from the current study redefines the fundamental concepts and understanding of what influences viscosity in concentrated organic CO2 capture solvents.},
doi = {10.1002/cssc.201601622},
journal = {ChemSusChem},
number = 3,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jan 11 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Jan 11 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • Climate change is partly attributed to global anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emission to the atmosphere. These environmental effects can be mitigated by CO2 capture, utilization and storage. Alkanolamine solvents, such as monoethanolamine (MEA), which bind CO2 as carbamates or bicarbonate salts are used for CO2 capture in niche applications. These solvents consist of approximately 30 wt% of MEA in water, exhibiting a low, CO2-rich viscosity, fast kinetics and favorable thermodynamics. However, these solvents have low CO2 capacity and high heat capacity of water, resulting in prohibitively high costs of thermal solvent regeneration. Effective capture of the enormous amounts of CO2more » produced by coal-fired plants requires a material with high CO2 capacity and low regeneration energy requirements. To this end, several water-lean transformational solvents systems have been developed in order to reduce these energy penalties. These technologies include nano-material organic hybrids (NOHMs), task-specific, protic and conventional ionic liquids, phase change solvents. As part of an ongoing program in our group, we have developed new water lean transformational solvents known as CO2 binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) which have the potential to be energy efficient CO2 capture solvents. These solvents, also known as switchable ionic liquids meaning, are organic solvents that can reversibly transform from non- ionic to ionic form and back. The zwitterionic state in these liquids is formed when low polarity non-ionic alkanolguanidines or alkanolamidines react with CO2 or SO2 to form ionic liquids with high polarity. These polar ionic liquids can be thermally converted to the less polar non-ionic solvent by releasing CO2.« less
  • CO2 capture from power generation with aqueous solvents remains energy intensive due to the high water content of the current technology, or the high viscosity of non-aqueous alternatives. Quantitative reduced models, connecting molecular structure to bulk properties, are key for developing structure-property relationships that enable molecular design. In this work, we describe such a model that quantitatively predicts viscosities of CO2 binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) based solely on molecular structure and the amount of bound CO2. The functional form of the model correlates the viscosity with the CO2 loading and an electrostatic term describing the charge distribution between the CO2-bearingmore » functional group and the proton-receiving amine. Molecular simulations identify the proton shuttle between these groups within the same molecule to be the critical indicator of low viscosity. The model, developed to allow for quick screening of solvent libraries, paves the way towards the rational design of low viscosity non-aqueous solvent systems for post-combustion CO2 capture. Following these theoretical recommendations, synthetic efforts of promising candidates and viscosity measurement provide experimental validation and verification.« less