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Title: Mutational analysis of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) gene in Japanese ALD patients

Abstract

Recently a putative ALD gene containing a striking homology with peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) has been identified. Besides childhood ALD, various clinical phenotypes have been identified with the onset in adolescence or adulthood (adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), adult cerebral ALD or cerebello-brainstem dominant type). The different clinical phenotypes occasionally coexist even in the same family. To investigate if there is a correlation between the clinical phenotypes and genotypes of the mutations in the ALD gene, we have analyzed 43 Japanese ALD patients. By Southern blot analysis, we identified non-overlapping deletions of 0.5 kb to 10.4 kb involving the ALD gene in 3 patients with adult onset cerebello-brainstem dominant type. By detailed direct sequence analysis, we found 4 patients who had point mutations in the coding region. An AMN patient had a point mutation leading to {sup 266}Gly{r_arrow}Arg change, and another patient with adult cerebral ALD had a 3 bp deletion resulting in the loss of glutamic acid at codon 291, which is a conserved amino acid both in ALD protein and PMP70. Two patients with childhood ALD had point mutations leading to {sup 507}Gly{r_arrow}Val, and {sup 518}Arg{r_arrow}Gln, respectively. Since amino acids from 507 to 520 are highly conserved as ATP-binding cassette transportermore » proteins, mutations in this region are expected to result in dramatic changes of the function of this protein. Although there is a tendancy for mutation in childhood ALD to be present within the ATP-binding site motif, we found two adult patients who had large deletions involving the region. Taken together, strong correlation between genotypes and clinical phenotypes is unlikely to exist, and some other modifying factors might well play an important role for the clinical manifestations of ALD.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Miigate Univ. (Japan) [and others
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
134235
Report Number(s):
CONF-941009-
Journal ID: AJHGAG; ISSN 0002-9297; TRN: 95:005313-0971
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: American Journal of Human Genetics; Journal Volume: 55; Journal Issue: Suppl.3; Conference: 44. annual meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics, Montreal (Canada), 18-22 Oct 1994; Other Information: PBD: Sep 1994
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
55 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, BASIC STUDIES; NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; GENES; AGE DEPENDENCE; PATIENTS; HEREDITARY DISEASES; PHENOTYPE; CORRELATIONS; GENE MUTATIONS; SIZE; JAPAN; PROTEINS; STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS; GENOTYPE; AMINO ACIDS; CODONS; DNA SEQUENCING; DOMINANT MUTATIONS

Citation Formats

Koike, R., Onodera, O., and Tabe, H.. Mutational analysis of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) gene in Japanese ALD patients. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
Koike, R., Onodera, O., & Tabe, H.. Mutational analysis of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) gene in Japanese ALD patients. United States.
Koike, R., Onodera, O., and Tabe, H.. Thu . "Mutational analysis of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) gene in Japanese ALD patients". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_134235,
title = {Mutational analysis of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) gene in Japanese ALD patients},
author = {Koike, R. and Onodera, O. and Tabe, H.},
abstractNote = {Recently a putative ALD gene containing a striking homology with peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) has been identified. Besides childhood ALD, various clinical phenotypes have been identified with the onset in adolescence or adulthood (adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), adult cerebral ALD or cerebello-brainstem dominant type). The different clinical phenotypes occasionally coexist even in the same family. To investigate if there is a correlation between the clinical phenotypes and genotypes of the mutations in the ALD gene, we have analyzed 43 Japanese ALD patients. By Southern blot analysis, we identified non-overlapping deletions of 0.5 kb to 10.4 kb involving the ALD gene in 3 patients with adult onset cerebello-brainstem dominant type. By detailed direct sequence analysis, we found 4 patients who had point mutations in the coding region. An AMN patient had a point mutation leading to {sup 266}Gly{r_arrow}Arg change, and another patient with adult cerebral ALD had a 3 bp deletion resulting in the loss of glutamic acid at codon 291, which is a conserved amino acid both in ALD protein and PMP70. Two patients with childhood ALD had point mutations leading to {sup 507}Gly{r_arrow}Val, and {sup 518}Arg{r_arrow}Gln, respectively. Since amino acids from 507 to 520 are highly conserved as ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins, mutations in this region are expected to result in dramatic changes of the function of this protein. Although there is a tendancy for mutation in childhood ALD to be present within the ATP-binding site motif, we found two adult patients who had large deletions involving the region. Taken together, strong correlation between genotypes and clinical phenotypes is unlikely to exist, and some other modifying factors might well play an important role for the clinical manifestations of ALD.},
doi = {},
journal = {American Journal of Human Genetics},
number = Suppl.3,
volume = 55,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1994},
month = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1994}
}
  • X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired {beta}-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), is due to mutations in a gene encoding a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (ALD protein [ALDP]). We analyzed the open reading frame of the ALD gene in 44 French ALD kindred by using SSCP or denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis and studied the effect of mutations on ALDP by immunocytofluorescence and western blotting of fibroblasts and/or white blood cells. Mutations were detected in 37 of 44 kindreds and were distributed over the whole protein-coding region, with the exception of the C terminus encoded in exon 10.more » Except for two mutations (delAG1801 and P560L) observed four times each, nearly every ALD family has a different mutation. Twenty-four of 37 mutations were missense mutations leading to amino acid changes located in or close to putative transmembrane segments (TMS 2, 3, 4, and 5), in the EAA-like motif and in the nucleotide fold of the ATP-binding domain of ALDP. Of 38 ALD patients tested, 27 (71%) lacked ALDP immunoreactivity in their fibroblasts and/or white blood cells. More than half of missense mutations studied (11 of 21) resulted in a complete lack of ALDP immunoreactivity, and six missense mutations resulted in decreased ALDP expression. The fibroblasts and/or white blood cells of 15 of 15 heterozygous carrier from ALD kindred with no ALDP showed a mixture of positive- and negative-ALDP immunoreactivity due to X-inactivation. Since 5%-15% of heterozygous women have normal VLCFA levels, the immunodetection of ALDP in white blood cells can be applicable in a majority of ALD kindred, to identify heterozygous women, particularly when the ALD gene mutation has not yet been identified. 35 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less
  • Recently, the gene for the most common peroxisomal disorder, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), has been described encoding a peroxisomal membrane transporter protein. We analyzed the entire protein-coding sequence of this gene by reverse-transcription PCR, SSCP, and DNA sequencing in five patients with different clinical expressions were cerebral childhood ALD, adrenomyecloneuropathy (AMN), and {open_quotes}Addison disease only{close_quotes} (AD) phenotype. In the three patients exhibiting the classical picture of severe childhood ALD we identified in the 5{prime} portion of the X-ALD gene a 38-bp deletion that causes a frameshift mutation, a 3-bp deletion leading to a deletion of an amino acid in the ATP-bindingmore » domain of the ALD protein, and a missense mutation. In the patient with the clinical phenotype of AMN, a nonsense mutation in codon 212, along with a second site mutation at codon 178, was observed. Analysis of the patient with the ADO phenotype revealed a further missense mutation at a highly conserved position in the ALDP/PMP70 comparison. The disruptive nature of two mutations (i.e., the frameshift and the nonsense mutation) in patients with biochemically proved childhood ALD and AMN further strongly supports the hypothesis that alterations in this gene play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of X-ALD. Since the current biochemical techniques for X-ALD carrier detection in affected families lack sufficient reliability, our procedure described for systematic mutation scanning is also capable of improving genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.« less
  • A gene responsible for the X-linked genetic disorder adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) that is characterized by demyelination of the nervous system and adrenocortical insufficiency has been identified by positional cloning. The gene encodes an ATP-binding transporter which is located in the peroxisomal membrane. Deficiency of the gene leads to accumulation of unsaturated very long chain fatty acids due to impaired peroxisomal {beta}-oxidation. A systematic analysis of the open reading frame of the ALD gene unraveled the mutations in 28 different families using reverse transcriptase-PCR followed by direct sequencing. No entire gene deletions or drastic promoter mutations have been detected. Only in onemore » family did the mutation involved multiple exons. The remaining mutations were subtle alterations leading to missense (about 50%) or nonsense mutations, frameshifts or splice acceptor site defects. In one patient a single codon was missing. Mutations affecting a single amino acid were concentrated in the region between the third and fourth putative membrane spanning fragments and in the ATP-binding domain. This overview of mutations aids in the determination of structural and functional important regions and facilitates the screening for mutations in other ALD patients. The detection of mutations in virtually all ALD families tested indicates that the isolated gene is the only gene responsible for ALD located in Xq28.« less
  • Argininemia is caused by a hereditary deficiency of liver-type arginase (E.C.3.5.3.1.) and is characterized by psychomotor retardation and spastic tetraplegia. The authors examined findings in three Japanese patients with argininemia, by using the PCR, cloning, and sequencing procedures. They found three different mutations - G-to-A-365 in exon 4, G-to-C-703 in exon 7, and C-del-842 in exon 8 - thereby leading to mutant arginase proteins of W122X, G235R, and L282FS, respectively. Patient 1 was a compound heterozygote, inheriting the allele with G-to-A-365 from his mother and the allele with G-to-C-703 from his father. Patients 2 and 3 were homozygotes of themore » allele with G-to-C-703 and of the allele with C-del-842, respectively. Expression tests of these mutant arginases in Escherichia coli indicated that the mutant arginase of W122X did not remain a stable product. The other two mutant arginases - G235R and L282FS - were detected by immunoblot analyses. There was no evidence of activity of the three mutant arginases expressed in E. coli. The authors tentatively conclude that argininemia is heterogeneous, at the molecular level. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less
  • Peripheral myelin protein (PMP-22) gene aneuploidy results in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 1A (CMT1A) and the Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy (HNPP) in Japanese patients as well as Caucasian Americans. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the most common genetic neuropathy, results when expression of one of at least seven genes is defective. CMT1A, about half of all CMT mutations, is usually associated with a duplication spanning the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene on distal chromosome band 17p11.2. Autosomal dominant HNPP (hereditary pressure and sensory neuropathy, HPSN) results from a deletion of the CMT1A gene region. Multicolor in situ hybridization with PMP-22 genemore » region probe characterized HNPP deletion reliably and detected all different size duplications reported previously. In summary, 72% of 28 Japanese CMT1 (HMSNI) patients tested had the CMT1A duplication, while none of the CMT2 (HMSNII) or CMT3 (HMSNIII) patients had a duplication. Three cases of HNPP were identified by deletion of the CMT1A gene region on chromosome 17p. HNPP and CMT1A have been reported to result simultaneously from the same unequal recombination event. The lower frequency of HNPP compared to CMT1A suggests that HNPP patients have a lower reproductive fitness than CMT1A patients. This result, along with a CMT1A duplication found in an Asian Indian family, demonstrates the broad geographic distribution and high frequency of PMP-22 gene aneuploidy.« less