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Title: Retrievals of ice cloud microphysical properties of deep convective systems using radar measurements: Convective Cloud Microphysical Retrieval

Abstract

This study presents new algorithms for retrieving ice cloud microphysical properties (ice water content (IWC) and median mass diameter (Dm)) for the stratiform and thick anvil regions of Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) using Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) reflectivity and recently developed empirical relationships from aircraft in situ measurements during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). A classic DCS case on 20 May 2011 is used to compare the retrieved IWC profiles with other retrieval and cloud-resolving model simulations. The mean values of each retrieved and simulated IWC fall within one standard derivation of the other two. The statistical results from six selected cases during MC3E show that the aircraft in situ derived IWC and Dm are 0.47 ± 0.29 g m-3 and 2.02 ± 1.3 mm, while the mean values of retrievals have a positive bias of 0.16 g m-3 (34%) and a negative bias of 0.39 mm (19%). To validate the newly developed retrieval algorithms from this study, IWC and Dm are performed with other DCS cases during Bow Echo and Mesoscale Convective Vortex Experiment (BAMEX) field campaign using composite gridded NEXRAD reflectivity and compared with in situ IWC and Dm from aircraft. A total of 64 1-min collocatedmore » aircraft and radar samples are available for comparisons, and the averages of radar retrieved and aircraft in situ measured IWCs are 1.22 g m-3 and 1.26 g m-3 with a correlation of 0.5, and their averaged Dm values are 2.15 and 1.80 mm. These comparisons have shown that the retrieval algorithms 45 developed during MC3E can retrieve similar ice cloud microphysical properties of DCS to aircraft in situ measurements during BAMEX with median errors of ~40% and ~25% for IWC and Dm retrievals, respectively. This is indicating our retrieval algorithms are suitable for other midlatitude continental DCS ice clouds, especially at stratiform rain and thick anvil regions. In addition, based on the averaged IWC and Dm values during MC3E and BAMEX, the DCS IWC values over midlatitude are significantly different, while their Dm values are close to each other. On the other hand, these DCS IWC and Dm values are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than those of single-layered cirrus clouds over midlatitudes.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks North Dakota USA
  2. School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma USA
  3. Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana Illinois USA
  4. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1340862
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-115663
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X; KP1701000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres; Journal Volume: 121; Journal Issue: 18
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Tian, Jingjing, Dong, Xiquan, Xi, Baike, Wang, Jingyu, Homeyer, Cameron R., McFarquhar, Greg M., and Fan, Jiwen. Retrievals of ice cloud microphysical properties of deep convective systems using radar measurements: Convective Cloud Microphysical Retrieval. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/2015JD024686.
Tian, Jingjing, Dong, Xiquan, Xi, Baike, Wang, Jingyu, Homeyer, Cameron R., McFarquhar, Greg M., & Fan, Jiwen. Retrievals of ice cloud microphysical properties of deep convective systems using radar measurements: Convective Cloud Microphysical Retrieval. United States. doi:10.1002/2015JD024686.
Tian, Jingjing, Dong, Xiquan, Xi, Baike, Wang, Jingyu, Homeyer, Cameron R., McFarquhar, Greg M., and Fan, Jiwen. Fri . "Retrievals of ice cloud microphysical properties of deep convective systems using radar measurements: Convective Cloud Microphysical Retrieval". United States. doi:10.1002/2015JD024686.
@article{osti_1340862,
title = {Retrievals of ice cloud microphysical properties of deep convective systems using radar measurements: Convective Cloud Microphysical Retrieval},
author = {Tian, Jingjing and Dong, Xiquan and Xi, Baike and Wang, Jingyu and Homeyer, Cameron R. and McFarquhar, Greg M. and Fan, Jiwen},
abstractNote = {This study presents new algorithms for retrieving ice cloud microphysical properties (ice water content (IWC) and median mass diameter (Dm)) for the stratiform and thick anvil regions of Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) using Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) reflectivity and recently developed empirical relationships from aircraft in situ measurements during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). A classic DCS case on 20 May 2011 is used to compare the retrieved IWC profiles with other retrieval and cloud-resolving model simulations. The mean values of each retrieved and simulated IWC fall within one standard derivation of the other two. The statistical results from six selected cases during MC3E show that the aircraft in situ derived IWC and Dm are 0.47 ± 0.29 g m-3 and 2.02 ± 1.3 mm, while the mean values of retrievals have a positive bias of 0.16 g m-3 (34%) and a negative bias of 0.39 mm (19%). To validate the newly developed retrieval algorithms from this study, IWC and Dm are performed with other DCS cases during Bow Echo and Mesoscale Convective Vortex Experiment (BAMEX) field campaign using composite gridded NEXRAD reflectivity and compared with in situ IWC and Dm from aircraft. A total of 64 1-min collocated aircraft and radar samples are available for comparisons, and the averages of radar retrieved and aircraft in situ measured IWCs are 1.22 g m-3 and 1.26 g m-3 with a correlation of 0.5, and their averaged Dm values are 2.15 and 1.80 mm. These comparisons have shown that the retrieval algorithms 45 developed during MC3E can retrieve similar ice cloud microphysical properties of DCS to aircraft in situ measurements during BAMEX with median errors of ~40% and ~25% for IWC and Dm retrievals, respectively. This is indicating our retrieval algorithms are suitable for other midlatitude continental DCS ice clouds, especially at stratiform rain and thick anvil regions. In addition, based on the averaged IWC and Dm values during MC3E and BAMEX, the DCS IWC values over midlatitude are significantly different, while their Dm values are close to each other. On the other hand, these DCS IWC and Dm values are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than those of single-layered cirrus clouds over midlatitudes.},
doi = {10.1002/2015JD024686},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = 18,
volume = 121,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Sep 23 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Fri Sep 23 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Measurement of ice number concentration in clouds is important but still challenging. Stratiform mixed-phase clouds (SMCs) provide a simple scenario for retrieving ice number concentration from remote sensing measurements. The simple ice generation and growth pattern in SMCs offers opportunities to use cloud radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements and other cloud properties to infer ice number concentration quantitatively. To understand the strong temperature dependency of ice habit and growth rate quantitatively, we develop a 1-D ice growth model to calculate the ice diffusional growth along its falling trajectory in SMCs. The radar reflectivity and fall velocity profiles of ice crystals calculatedmore » from the 1-D ice growth model are evaluated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) ground-based high vertical resolution radar measurements. Combining Ze measurements and 1-D ice growth model simulations, we develop a method to retrieve the ice number concentrations in SMCs at given cloud top temperature (CTT) and liquid water path (LWP). The retrieved ice concentrations in SMCs are evaluated with in situ measurements and with a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulation with a bin microphysical scheme. These comparisons show that the retrieved ice number concentrations are within an uncertainty of a factor of 2, statistically.« less
  • In this study, six deep convective systems (DCSs) with a total of 5589 five-second samples and a range of temperatures from -41°C to 0°C during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) were selected to investigate the ice cloud microphysical properties of DCSs over the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The ice cloud measurements of the DCS cases were made by the University of North Dakota Citation II research aircraft, and the ice cloud properties were derived through the following processes. First, the instances of supercooled liquid water in the ice-dominated cloud layersmore » of DCSs have been eliminated using multisensor detection, including the Rosemount Icing Detector, King and Cloud Droplet Probes, as well as 2DC and Cloud Imaging Probe images. Then the Nevzorov-measured ice water contents (IWCs) at maximum diameter D max < 4000 µm are used as the best estimation to determine a new mass-dimensional relationship. Finally, the newly derived mass-dimensional relationship (a = 0.00365, b = 2.1) has been applied to a full spectrum of particle size distributions (PSDs, 120–30,000 µm) constructed from both 2DC and High-Volume Precipitation Spectrometer measurements to calculate the best-estimated IWCs of DCSs during MC3E. The averages of the total number concentrations (N t), median mass diameter (D m), maximum diameter (D max), and IWC from six selected cases are 0.035 cm -3, 1666 µm, 8841 µm, and 0.45 g m -3, respectively. The gamma-type-size distributions are then generated matching the observed PSDs (120–30,000 µm), and the fitted gamma parameters are compared with the observed PSDs through multimoment assessments including first moment (D m), third moment (IWC), and sixth moment (equivalent radar reflectivity, Z e). Lastly, for application of observed PSDs to the remote sensing community, a series of empirical relationships between fitted parameters and Z e values has been derived, and the bullet rosette ice crystal backscattering relationship has been suggested for ground-based remote sensing.« less
  • Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on 23-24 January 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observed radar reflectivity fields and dual-Doppler retrievals of vertical wind speeds in an attempt to explain published results showing a high bias in simulated convective radar reflectivity aloft. This high bias results from ice water content being large, which is a product of large, strong convective updrafts, although hydrometeor size distribution assumptions modulate the size of this bias.more » Making snow mass more realistically proportional to D2 rather than D3 eliminates unrealistically large snow reflectivities over 40 dBZ in some simulations. Graupel, unlike snow, produces high biased reflectivity in all simulations, which is partly a result of parameterized microphysics, but also partly a result of overly intense simulated updrafts. Peak vertical velocities in deep convective updrafts are greater than dual-Doppler retrieved values, especially in the upper troposphere. Freezing of liquid condensate, often rain, lofted above the freezing level in simulated updraft cores greatly contributes to these excessive upper tropospheric vertical velocities. The strongest simulated updraft cores are nearly undiluted, with some of the strongest showing supercell characteristics during the multicellular (pre-squall) stage of the event. Decreasing horizontal grid spacing from 900 to 100 meters slightly weakens deep updraft vertical velocity and moderately decreases the amount of condensate aloft, but not enough to match observational retrievals. Therefore, overly intense simulated updrafts may additionally be a product of unrealistic interactions between convective dynamics, parameterized microphysics, and the large-scale model forcing that promote different convective strengths than observed.« less
  • The US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site includes a heterogeneous distributed scanning Doppler radar network suitable for collecting coordinated Doppler velocity measurements in deep convective clouds. The surrounding National Weather Service (NWS) Next Generation Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (NEXRAD WSR-88D) further supplements this network. Radar velocity measurements are assimilated in a three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) algorithm that retrieves horizontal and vertical air motions over a large analysis domain (100 km × 100 km) at storm-scale resolutions (250 m). For the first time, direct evaluation of retrieved vertical air velocities with thosemore » from collocated 915 MHz radar wind profilers is performed. Mean absolute and root-mean-square differences between the two sources are of the order of 1 and 2 m s -1, respectively, and time–height correlations are of the order of 0.5. An empirical sensitivity analysis is done to determine a range of 3DVAR constraint weights that adequately satisfy the velocity observations and anelastic mass continuity. It is shown that the vertical velocity spread over this range is of the order of 1 m s -1. The 3DVAR retrievals are also compared to those obtained from an iterative upwards integration technique. Lastly, the results suggest that the 3DVAR technique provides a robust, stable solution for cases in which integration techniques have difficulty satisfying velocity observations and mass continuity simultaneously.« less