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Title: Pilot-Scale Evaluation of an Advanced Carbon Sorbent-Based Process for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture

Abstract

The overall objective of this project is to achieve the DOE’s goal to develop advanced CO 2 capture and separation technologies that can realize at least 90% CO 2 removal from flue gas steams produced at a pulverized coal (PC) power plant at a cost of less than $40/tonne of CO 2 captured. The principal objective is to test a CO 2 capture process that will reduce the parasitic plant load by using a CO 2 capture sorbent that will require a reduced amount of steam. The process is based on advanced carbon sorbents having a low heat of adsorption, high CO 2 adsorption capacity, and excellent selectivity. While the intent of this project was to produce design and performance data by testing the sorbent using a slipstream of coal-derived flue gas at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) under realistic conditions and continuous long-term operation, the project was terminated following completion of the detailing pilot plant design/engineering work on June 30, 2016.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1337051
DOE Contract Number:
FE0013123
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Hornbostel, Marc. Pilot-Scale Evaluation of an Advanced Carbon Sorbent-Based Process for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1337051.
Hornbostel, Marc. Pilot-Scale Evaluation of an Advanced Carbon Sorbent-Based Process for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture. United States. doi:10.2172/1337051.
Hornbostel, Marc. 2016. "Pilot-Scale Evaluation of an Advanced Carbon Sorbent-Based Process for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture". United States. doi:10.2172/1337051. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1337051.
@article{osti_1337051,
title = {Pilot-Scale Evaluation of an Advanced Carbon Sorbent-Based Process for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture},
author = {Hornbostel, Marc},
abstractNote = {The overall objective of this project is to achieve the DOE’s goal to develop advanced CO2 capture and separation technologies that can realize at least 90% CO2 removal from flue gas steams produced at a pulverized coal (PC) power plant at a cost of less than $40/tonne of CO2 captured. The principal objective is to test a CO2 capture process that will reduce the parasitic plant load by using a CO2 capture sorbent that will require a reduced amount of steam. The process is based on advanced carbon sorbents having a low heat of adsorption, high CO2 adsorption capacity, and excellent selectivity. While the intent of this project was to produce design and performance data by testing the sorbent using a slipstream of coal-derived flue gas at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) under realistic conditions and continuous long-term operation, the project was terminated following completion of the detailing pilot plant design/engineering work on June 30, 2016.},
doi = {10.2172/1337051},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • Post-combustion CO 2 capture (PCC) technology offers flexibility to treat the flue gas from both existing and new coal-fired power plants and can be applied to treat all or a portion of the flue gas. Solvent-based technologies are today the leading option for PCC from commercial coal-fired power plants as they have been applied in large-scale in other applications. Linde and BASF have been working together to develop and further improve a PCC process incorporating BASF’s novel aqueous amine-based solvent technology. This technology offers significant benefits compared to other solvent-based processes as it aims to reduce the regeneration energy requirementsmore » using novel solvents that are very stable under the coal-fired power plant feed gas conditions. BASF has developed the desired solvent based on the evaluation of a large number of candidates. In addition, long-term small pilot-scale testing of the BASF solvent has been performed on a lignite-fired flue gas. In coordination with BASF, Linde has evaluated a number of options for capital cost reduction in large engineered systems for solvent-based PCC technology. This report provides a summary of the work performed and results from a project supported by the US DOE (DE-FE0007453) for the pilot-scale demonstration of a Linde-BASF PCC technology using coal-fired power plant flue gas at a 1-1.5 MWe scale in Wilsonville, AL at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). Following a project kick-off meeting in November 2011 and the conclusion of pilot plant design and engineering in February 2013, mechanical completion of the pilot plant was achieved in July 2014, and final commissioning activities were completed to enable start-up of operations in January 2015. Parametric tests were performed from January to December 2015 to determine optimal test conditions and evaluate process performance over a variety of operation parameters. A long-duration 1500-hour continuous test campaign was performed from May to August 2016 at a selected process condition to evaluate process performance and solvent stability over a longer period similar to how the process would operate as a continuously running large-scale PCC plant. The pilot plant integrated a number of unique features of the Linde-BASF technology aimed at lowering overall energy consumption and capital costs. During the overall test period including startup, parametric testing and long-duration testing, the pilot plant was operated for a total of 6,764 hours out of which testing with flue gas was performed for 4,109 hours. The pilot plant testing demonstrated all of the performance targets including CO 2 capture rate exceeding 90%, CO 2 purity exceeding 99.9 mol% (dry), flue gas processing capacity up to 15,500 lbs/hr (equivalent to 1.5 MWe capacity slipstream), regeneration energy as low as 2.7 GJ/tonne CO 2, and regenerator operating pressure up to 3.4 bara. Excellent solvent stability performance data was measured and verified by Linde and BASF during both test campaigns. In addition to process data, significant operational learnings were gained from pilot tests that will contribute greatly to the commercial success of PCC. Based on a thorough techno-economic assessment (TEA) of the Linde-BASF PCC process integrated with a 550 MWe supercritical coal-fired power plant, the net efficiency of the integrated power plant with CO 2 capture is increased from 28.4% with the DOE/NETL Case 12 reference to 30.9% with the Linde-BASF PCC plant previously presented utilizing the BASF OASE® blue solvent [Ref. 4], and is further increased to 31.4% using a Linde-BASF PCC plant with BASF OASE® blue solvent and an advanced stripper interstage heater (SIH) configuration. The Linde-BASF PCC plant incorporating the BASF OASE® blue solvent also results in significantly lower overall capital costs, thereby reducing the cost of electricity (COE) and cost of CO 2 captured from $147.25/MWh and $56.49/MT CO 2, respectively, for the reference DOE/NETL Case 12 plant, to $128.49/MWh and $41.85/MT CO2 for process case LB1, respectively, and $126.65/MWh and $40.66/MT CO 2 for process case SIH, respectively. With additional innovative Linde-BASF PCC process configuration improvements, the COE and cost of CO 2 captured can be further reduced to $125.51/MWh and $39.90/MT CO 2 for a further optimized PCC process defined as LB1-CREB. Most notably, the Linde-BASF process options assessed have already demonstrated the potential to lower the cost of CO 2 captured below the DOE target of $40/MT CO 2 at the 550 MWe scale for second generation PCC technologies. Project organization, structure, goals, tasks, accomplishments, process criteria and milestones will be presented in this report along with highlights and key results from parametric and long-duration testing of the Linde-BASF PCC pilot. The parametric and long-duration testing campaigns were aimed at validating the performance of the PCC technology against targets determined from a preliminary techno-economic assessment. The stability of the solvent with extended operation in a realistic power plant setting was measured with performance verified. Additionally, general solvent classification information, process operating conditions, normalized solvent performance data, solvent stability test results, flue gas conditions data, CO 2 purity data in the gaseous product stream, steam requirements and process flow diagrams, and updated process economic data for a scaled-up 550 MWe supercritical power plant with CO 2 capture are presented and discussed in this report.« less
  • It is increasingly clear that CO 2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO 2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO 2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO 2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advancedmore » Solid Sorbent CO 2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO 2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO 2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO 2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO 2 capture. The overall objective of this project was to mitigate the technical and economic risks associated with the scale-up of solid sorbent-based CO 2 capture processes, enabling subsequent larger pilot demonstrations and ultimately commercial deployment. An integrated development approach has been a key focus of this project in which process development, sorbent development, and economic analyses have informed each of the other development processes. Development efforts have focused on improving the performance stability of sorbent candidates, refining process engineering and design, and evaluating the viability of the technology through detailed economic analyses. Sorbent advancements have led to a next generation, commercially-viable CO 2 capture sorbent exhibiting performance stability in various gas environments and a physically strong fluidizable form. The team has reduced sorbent production costs and optimized the production process and scale-up of PEI-impregnated, fluidizable sorbents. Refinement of the process engineering and design, as well as the construction and operation of a bench-scale research unit has demonstrated promising CO 2 capture performance under simulated coal-fired flue gas conditions. Parametric testing has shown how CO 2 capture performance is impacted by changing process variables, such as Adsorber temperature, Regenerator temperature, superficial flue gas velocity, solids circulation rate, CO 2 partial pressure in the Regenerator, and many others. Long-term testing has generated data for the project team to set the process conditions needed to operate a solids-based system for optimal performance, with continuous 90% CO 2 capture, and no operational interruptions. Data collected from all phases of testing has been used to develop a detailed techno-economic assessment of RTI’s technology. These detailed analyses show that RTI’s technology has significant economic advantages over current amine scrubbing and potential to achieve the DOE’s Carbon Capture Program’s goal of >90% CO 2 capture rate at a cost of < $40/T-CO 2 captured by 2025. Through this integrated technology development approach, the project team has advanced RTI’s CO 2 capture technology to TRL-4 (nearly TRL-5, with the missing variable being testing on actual, coal-fired flue gas), according to the DOE/FE definitions for Technology Readiness Levels. At a broader level, this project has advanced the whole of the solid sorbent CO 2 capture field, with advancements in process engineering and design, technical risk mitigation, sorbent scale-up optimization, and an understanding of the commercial viability and applicability of solid sorbent CO 2 capture technologies for the U.S. existing fleet of coal-fired power plants.« less
  • The Data Supplement, presented in two volumes, documents data in greater detail than was practical in the final reports for this contract. It provides details to researchers interested in performing their own analyses. Readers are referred to the contract final reports for information on objectives, selection of units, measurement procedures, interpretations, and conclusions. Data for gaseous emission concentrations of NO, NOx, CO, HC, SO2, and SO3 are in parts per million by volume (ppm) on a dry basis corrected to 3 percent O2 by volume (dry) in the flue gas. Data in this volume are arranged by Location No. formore » Locations 1 and 7. A location is defined as one company or plant in which one or more units were tested. Each unit tested at a location is identified by a Unit No. The contract final reports refer to test numbers when data are discussed. Test numbers are of the form xx/yy-zz, where xx = Location No., yy = Test Series No. (e.g., oxygen variations, load variations, register adjustments), and zz = Test No. in that series.« less
  • The objective of this research and development (R&D) project was to further the development of a solid sorbent-based CO2 capture process based on sodium carbonate (i.e. the Dry Carbonate Process) that is capable of capturing>90% of the CO2 as a nearly pure stream from coal-fired power plant flue gas with <35% increase in the cost of electrictiy (ICOE).
  • The work summarized in this report is the first step towards a project that will re-train and create jobs for personnel in the coal industry and continue regional economic development to benefit regions impacted by previous downturns. The larger project is aimed at capturing ~300 tons/day (272 metric tonnes/day) CO 2 at a 90% capture rate from existing coal- fired boilers at the Abbott Power Plant on the campus of University of Illinois (UI). It will employ the Linde-BASF novel amine-based advanced CO 2 capture technology, which has already shown the potential to be cost-effective, energy efficient and compact atmore » the 0.5-1.5 MWe pilot scales. The overall objective of the project is to design and install a scaled-up system of nominal 15 MWe size, integrate it with the Abbott Power Plant flue gas, steam and other utility systems, and demonstrate the viability of continuous operation under realistic conditions with high efficiency and capacity. The project will also begin to build a workforce that understands how to operate and maintain the capture plants by including students from regional community colleges and universities in the operation and evaluation of the capture system. This project will also lay the groundwork for follow-on projects that pilot utilization of the captured CO 2 from coal-fired power plants. The net impact will be to demonstrate a replicable means to (1) use a standardized procedure to evaluate power plants for their ability to be retrofitted with a pilot capture unit; (2) design and construct reliable capture systems based on the Linde-BASF technology; (3) operate and maintain these systems; (4) implement training programs with local community colleges and universities to establish a workforce to operate and maintain the systems; and (5) prepare to evaluate at the large pilot scale level various methods to utilize the resulting captured CO 2. Towards the larger project goal, the UI-led team, together with Linde, has completed a preliminary design for the carbon capture pilot plant with basic engineering and cost estimates, established permitting needs, identified approaches to address Environmental, Health, and Safety concerns related to pilot plant installation and operation, developed approaches for long-term use of the captured carbon, and established strategies for workforce development and job creation that will re-train coal operators to operate carbon capture plants. This report describes Phase I accomplishments and demonstrates that the project team is well-prepared for full implementation of Phase 2, to design, build, and operate the carbon capture pilot plant.« less