skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Activated Carbon Fibers For Gas Storage

Abstract

The advantages of Activated Carbon Fibers (ACF) over Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) are reviewed and their relationship to ACF structure and texture are discussed. These advantages make ACF very attractive for gas storage applications. Both adsorbed natural gas (ANG) and hydrogen gas adsorption performance are discussed. The predicted and actual structure and performance of lignin-derived ACF is reviewed. The manufacture and performance of ACF derived monolith for potential automotive natural gas (NG) storage applications is reported Future trends for ACF for gas storage are considered to be positive. The recent improvements in NG extraction coupled with the widespread availability of NG wells means a relatively inexpensive and abundant NG supply in the foreseeable future. This has rekindled interest in NG powered vehicles. The advantages and benefit of ANG compared to compressed NG offer the promise of accelerated use of ANG as a commuter vehicle fuel. It is to be hoped the current cost hurdle of ACF can be overcome opening ANG applications that take advantage of the favorable properties of ACF versus GAC. Lastly, suggestions are made regarding the direction of future work.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1329759
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Book
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Activated Carbon Fibers; Gas storage; Hydrogen; Methane; Fibrous monoliths

Citation Formats

Burchell, Timothy D, Contescu, Cristian I, and Gallego, Nidia C. Activated Carbon Fibers For Gas Storage. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-100660-3.00012-2.
Burchell, Timothy D, Contescu, Cristian I, & Gallego, Nidia C. Activated Carbon Fibers For Gas Storage. United States. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-100660-3.00012-2.
Burchell, Timothy D, Contescu, Cristian I, and Gallego, Nidia C. Sun . "Activated Carbon Fibers For Gas Storage". United States. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-100660-3.00012-2.
@article{osti_1329759,
title = {Activated Carbon Fibers For Gas Storage},
author = {Burchell, Timothy D and Contescu, Cristian I and Gallego, Nidia C},
abstractNote = {The advantages of Activated Carbon Fibers (ACF) over Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) are reviewed and their relationship to ACF structure and texture are discussed. These advantages make ACF very attractive for gas storage applications. Both adsorbed natural gas (ANG) and hydrogen gas adsorption performance are discussed. The predicted and actual structure and performance of lignin-derived ACF is reviewed. The manufacture and performance of ACF derived monolith for potential automotive natural gas (NG) storage applications is reported Future trends for ACF for gas storage are considered to be positive. The recent improvements in NG extraction coupled with the widespread availability of NG wells means a relatively inexpensive and abundant NG supply in the foreseeable future. This has rekindled interest in NG powered vehicles. The advantages and benefit of ANG compared to compressed NG offer the promise of accelerated use of ANG as a commuter vehicle fuel. It is to be hoped the current cost hurdle of ACF can be overcome opening ANG applications that take advantage of the favorable properties of ACF versus GAC. Lastly, suggestions are made regarding the direction of future work.},
doi = {10.1016/B978-0-08-100660-3.00012-2},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Book:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this book.

Save / Share:
  • The production and application of low-cost, general purpose carbon fibers and activated fibers are emerging technologies with exciting potential, although at present their cost is too high to find widespread use. Production and R and D have been limited and to data, only a small range of precursors has been studied: petroleum pitches, coal extracts and coal tar pitches. Both processing costs and the properties of the fiber products are dependent on the nature of the starting material. Commercial precursors have been limited to the pitches produced from high temperature pyrolysis or cracking processes and are similar in composition andmore » molecular structure. Suitable coal-based precursors can be produced with a wide range of composition, and at moderate cost, by methods such as low temperature carbonization, solvent extraction, hydropyrolysis and mild coal liquefaction. It is of interest to investigate the synthesis of carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers from precursors of different origins to elucidate the influence of precursor materials on fiber formation and processing, and their structure and properties. It is also of practical importance to understand the relationships between the type of starting materials (for example, coals) and the processing methods, and the properties of fiber precursors that can be produced from them. In the present study, the authors describe the synthesis of carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers from the products of the first stage of coal liquefaction.« less
  • Large amounts of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x})-containing waste gases are emitted from automobiles, boilers and other apparatus every day. The catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide with ammonia is one of the efficient methods for waste gas treatment. In this paper, ACF was used as the carrier, and copper-series, nickel-series, and copper-cobalt composite-series catalysts supported on ACF were prepared. The structures of the catalysts and their catalytic activities for the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, surface area determination, SEM and other chemical methods.
  • Granular activated carbon (GAC) is the most frequently used adsorbent in industrial applications due to its surface properties, large surface area, low pressure drop and relatively low cost. Regeneration of GAC beds can be accomplished using different techniques. Some of the more commonly used methods are: thermal regeneration; steam generation; supercritical fluid extraction (e.g., liquid CO{sub 2}); wet oxidation; and solvent extraction. Many of these techniques are not feasible options for on-site regeneration of GAC due to high capital or operating costs or potential disposal problems. In an attempt to simplify the regeneration process and to minimize additional waste streams,more » use of natural gas as the regeneration fluid is being evaluated at Oklahoma State University. Previous work has shown GAC to absorb natural gas to a limited extent as compared to other gases, to absorb less onto GAC at higher temperatures, and, to absorb less onto GAC at lower pressures. The low reactivity of natural gas, under certain conditions, is an indicator of its potential to be an effective regeneration agent. This paper presents preliminary results on the use of natural gas to regenerate GAC columns. To demonstrate the viability of this regeneration strategy, benzene has been selected as the adsorbate. Benzene is a common pollutant in many industries and is regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. As such, it represents a sizable class of environmental pollutants. Air was chosen as the carrier for the benzene to simplify the experimental system and to allow determination of the effects of small amounts of water on the bed during the regeneration process.« less
  • Palladium-modified activated carbon fibers (Pd-ACF) were synthesized by meltspinning, carbonization and activation of an isotropic pitch carbon precursor premixed with an organometallic Pd compound. The hydrogen uptake at 25 oC and 20 bar on Pd- ACF exceeded the expected capacity based solely on Pd hydride formation and hydrogen physisorption on the microporous carbon support. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with sub- ngstrom spatial resolution provided unambiguous identification of isolated Pd atoms occurring in the carbon matrix that coexist with larger Pd particles. First principles calculations revealed that each single Pd atom can form Kubas-type complexes by binding up tomore » three H2 molecules in the pressure range of adsorption measurements. Based on Pd atom concentration determined from STEM images, the contribution of various mechanisms to the excess hydrogen uptake measured experimentally was evaluated. With consideration of Kubas binding as a viable mechanism (along with hydride formation and physisorption to carbon support) the role of hydrogen spillover in this system may be smaller than previously thought.« less
  • Aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to demonstrate the feasibility of imaging individual Pd atoms that are highly dispersed throughout the volume of activated carbon fibers. Simultaneous acquisition of high-angle annular dark-field and bright-field images allows correlation of the location of single Pd atoms with microstructural features of the carbon host material. Sub-Angstrom imaging conditions revealed that 18 wt% of the total Pd content is dispersed as single Pd atoms in three re-occurring local structural arrangements. The identified structural configurations may represent effective storage sites for molecular hydrogen through Kubas complex formation as discussed in detail in themore » preceding article.« less