skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Design of a high-bunch-charge 112-MHz superconducting RF photoemission electron source

Abstract

High-bunch-charge photoemission electron-sources operating in a continuous wave (CW) mode are required for many advanced applications of particle accelerators, such as electron coolers for hadron beams, electron-ion colliders, and free-electron lasers (FELs). Superconducting RF (SRF) has several advantages over other electron-gun technologies in CW mode as it offers higher acceleration rate and potentially can generate higher bunch charges and average beam currents. A 112 MHz SRF electron photoinjector (gun) was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to produce high-brightness and high-bunch-charge bunches for the Coherent electron Cooling Proof-of-Principle (CeC PoP) experiment. Lastly, the gun utilizes a quarter-wave resonator (QWR) geometry for assuring beam dynamics, and uses high quantum efficiency (QE) multi-alkali photocathodes for generating electrons.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [2];  [2] more »;  [4];  [2] « less
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  3. Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States)
  4. Peking Univ., Beijing (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
OSTI Identifier:
1326246
Report Number(s):
BNL-113258-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748; RSINAK; R&D Project: KBCH139; 18034; KB0202011
Grant/Contract Number:
SC00112704; PHY-1415252; FOA-0000632
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

Citation Formats

Xin, T., Brutus, J. C., Belomestnykh, Sergey A., Ben-Zvi, I., Boulware, C. H., Grimm, T. L., Hayes, T., Litvinenko, Vladimir N., Mernick, K., Narayan, G., Orfin, P., Pinayev, I., Rao, T., Severino, F., Skaritka, J., Smith, K., Than, R., Tuozzolo, J., Wang, E., Xiao, B., Xie, H., and Zaltsman, A.. Design of a high-bunch-charge 112-MHz superconducting RF photoemission electron source. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4962682.
Xin, T., Brutus, J. C., Belomestnykh, Sergey A., Ben-Zvi, I., Boulware, C. H., Grimm, T. L., Hayes, T., Litvinenko, Vladimir N., Mernick, K., Narayan, G., Orfin, P., Pinayev, I., Rao, T., Severino, F., Skaritka, J., Smith, K., Than, R., Tuozzolo, J., Wang, E., Xiao, B., Xie, H., & Zaltsman, A.. Design of a high-bunch-charge 112-MHz superconducting RF photoemission electron source. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4962682.
Xin, T., Brutus, J. C., Belomestnykh, Sergey A., Ben-Zvi, I., Boulware, C. H., Grimm, T. L., Hayes, T., Litvinenko, Vladimir N., Mernick, K., Narayan, G., Orfin, P., Pinayev, I., Rao, T., Severino, F., Skaritka, J., Smith, K., Than, R., Tuozzolo, J., Wang, E., Xiao, B., Xie, H., and Zaltsman, A.. 2016. "Design of a high-bunch-charge 112-MHz superconducting RF photoemission electron source". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4962682.
@article{osti_1326246,
title = {Design of a high-bunch-charge 112-MHz superconducting RF photoemission electron source},
author = {Xin, T. and Brutus, J. C. and Belomestnykh, Sergey A. and Ben-Zvi, I. and Boulware, C. H. and Grimm, T. L. and Hayes, T. and Litvinenko, Vladimir N. and Mernick, K. and Narayan, G. and Orfin, P. and Pinayev, I. and Rao, T. and Severino, F. and Skaritka, J. and Smith, K. and Than, R. and Tuozzolo, J. and Wang, E. and Xiao, B. and Xie, H. and Zaltsman, A.},
abstractNote = {High-bunch-charge photoemission electron-sources operating in a continuous wave (CW) mode are required for many advanced applications of particle accelerators, such as electron coolers for hadron beams, electron-ion colliders, and free-electron lasers (FELs). Superconducting RF (SRF) has several advantages over other electron-gun technologies in CW mode as it offers higher acceleration rate and potentially can generate higher bunch charges and average beam currents. A 112 MHz SRF electron photoinjector (gun) was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to produce high-brightness and high-bunch-charge bunches for the Coherent electron Cooling Proof-of-Principle (CeC PoP) experiment. Lastly, the gun utilizes a quarter-wave resonator (QWR) geometry for assuring beam dynamics, and uses high quantum efficiency (QE) multi-alkali photocathodes for generating electrons.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4962682},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 9,
volume = 87,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1063/1.4962682

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:
  • High-bunch-charge photoemission electron-sources operating in a continuous wave (CW) mode are required for many advanced applications of particle accelerators, such as electron coolers for hadron beams, electron-ion colliders, and free-electron lasers (FELs). Superconducting RF (SRF) has several advantages over other electron-gun technologies in CW mode as it offers higher acceleration rate and potentially can generate higher bunch charges and average beam currents. A 112 MHz SRF electron photoinjector (gun) was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to produce high-brightness and high-bunch-charge bunches for the Coherent electron Cooling Proof-of-Principle (CeC PoP) experiment. Lastly, the gun utilizes a quarter-wave resonator (QWR) geometrymore » for assuring beam dynamics, and uses high quantum efficiency (QE) multi-alkali photocathodes for generating electrons.« less
  • Cited by 2
  • The RF field and space charge effect in a low field RF gun is given. The cell lengths are modified to have maximum accelerating efficiency. The modification introduces an extra RF field slice emittance. The phase space evolution of the following emittance compensation system is presented taking into account the chromatic effect. The emittance compensation mechanics for RF field and chromatic effect induced emittance is similar to that of compensating the space charge induced emittance. But the requirements are different to have best compensation for them. The beam waist is far in front of linac entrance to have best compensationmore » for the RF field and chromatic effect induced emittance. For low field RF gun with high charge electron bunch this compensation is more important.« less
  • By imaging the spatial intensity distribution of the electrons from a Stoffel-Johnson (SJ) type low energy electron source for inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES), we find that the focus is distorted when the beam current exceeds the limiting value due to space charge effect. The space charge effect and the contact potential difference suppress the beam current at low energies (<10 eV). In this work, we show that these limitations of the SJ source can be overcome by compensation of the contact potential difference between the cathode and the lens electrodes and an uniform well focused electron beam with the set kineticmore » energy can be obtained. The size of the electron beam is around 1 mm full width at half maximum over the whole energy range of 5 to 30 eV generally used for IPES. The compensation of the contact potential difference also enhances the beam current substantially at low energies (<10 eV) and uniform beam current is achieved for the whole energy range. We find that the drift in the electron beam position is sensitive to the lens electrode separation and it is about 1 mm over the whole energy range. By measuring the n = 1 image potential state on Cu(100), we show that the resolution is better when the cathode filament current is set to lower values.« less
  • A 'multiple beamlet' experiment aimed at investigating the transverse space charge effect was recently conducted at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator. The experiment generated a symmetric pattern of 5 beamlets on the photocathode of the RF gun with the drive laser. We explored the evolution of the thereby produced 5 MeV, space-charge dominated electron beamlets in the 2 m drift following the RF photocathode gun for various external focusing. Two important effects were observed and benchmarked using the particle-in-cell beam dynamics code Impact-T. In this paper, we present our experimental observation and their benchmarking with Impact-T.