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Title: The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument – Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties

Abstract

In this study, the multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD 550) over land is ~0.19, and that over oceans is ~0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD 550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiative transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 andmore » 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 < AOD 430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD 430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD 430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD 430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), –0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), –0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMEL AOD –MFRSR AOD) and yields the following expressions for correlations between different instruments: DOAS AOD = –(0.019 ± 0.006) + (1.03 ± 0.02) × CIMEL AOD ( R 2 = 0.98), DOAS AOD = –(0.006 ± 0.005) + (1.08 ± 0.02) × MFRSR AOD ( R 2 = 0.98), and CIMEL AOD = (0.013 ± 0.004) + (1.05 ± 0.01) × MFRSR AOD ( R 2 = 0.99). The average g measured by DOAS on both days was 0.66 ± 0.03, with a difference of 0.014 ± 0.05 compared to CIMEL. Active steps to minimize the error in the RSP help to reduce the uncertainty in retrievals of AOD and g. As AOD decreases and SZA increases, the RSP signal-to-noise ratio increases. At AOD 430 ~0.4 and 0.10 the absolute AOD errors are ~ 0.014 and 0.003 at 70° SZA and 0.02 and 0.004 at 35° SZA. Inherently calibrated, precise AOD and g measurements are useful to better characterize the aerosol direct effect in urban polluted and remote pristine environments.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), Boulder, CO (United States)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  3. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), Boulder, CO (United States); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States)
  4. NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1307785
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-114881
Journal ID: ISSN 1867-8548; KP1701000
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830; SC0006080; AC06-76RLO 1830
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online); Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1867-8548
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Ortega, Ivan, Coburn, Sean, Berg, Larry K., Lantz, Kathy, Michalsky, Joseph, Ferrare, Richard A., Hair, Johnathan W., Hostetler, Chris A., and Volkamer, Rainer. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument – Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.5194/amt-9-3893-2016.
Ortega, Ivan, Coburn, Sean, Berg, Larry K., Lantz, Kathy, Michalsky, Joseph, Ferrare, Richard A., Hair, Johnathan W., Hostetler, Chris A., & Volkamer, Rainer. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument – Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties. United States. doi:10.5194/amt-9-3893-2016.
Ortega, Ivan, Coburn, Sean, Berg, Larry K., Lantz, Kathy, Michalsky, Joseph, Ferrare, Richard A., Hair, Johnathan W., Hostetler, Chris A., and Volkamer, Rainer. 2016. "The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument – Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties". United States. doi:10.5194/amt-9-3893-2016.
@article{osti_1307785,
title = {The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument – Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties},
author = {Ortega, Ivan and Coburn, Sean and Berg, Larry K. and Lantz, Kathy and Michalsky, Joseph and Ferrare, Richard A. and Hair, Johnathan W. and Hostetler, Chris A. and Volkamer, Rainer},
abstractNote = {In this study, the multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is ~0.19, and that over oceans is ~0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiative transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 < AOD430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), –0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), –0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMELAOD –MFRSRAOD) and yields the following expressions for correlations between different instruments: DOASAOD = –(0.019 ± 0.006) + (1.03 ± 0.02) × CIMELAOD (R2 = 0.98), DOASAOD = –(0.006 ± 0.005) + (1.08 ± 0.02) × MFRSRAOD (R2 = 0.98), and CIMELAOD = (0.013 ± 0.004) + (1.05 ± 0.01) × MFRSRAOD (R2 = 0.99). The average g measured by DOAS on both days was 0.66 ± 0.03, with a difference of 0.014 ± 0.05 compared to CIMEL. Active steps to minimize the error in the RSP help to reduce the uncertainty in retrievals of AOD and g. As AOD decreases and SZA increases, the RSP signal-to-noise ratio increases. At AOD430 ~0.4 and 0.10 the absolute AOD errors are ~ 0.014 and 0.003 at 70° SZA and 0.02 and 0.004 at 35° SZA. Inherently calibrated, precise AOD and g measurements are useful to better characterize the aerosol direct effect in urban polluted and remote pristine environments.},
doi = {10.5194/amt-9-3893-2016},
journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online)},
number = 8,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.5194/amt-9-3893-2016

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  • The multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD 550) over land is ~0.19, and that over oceans is ~0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD 550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiativemore » transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 < AOD 430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD 430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD 430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD 430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), -0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), -0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMEL AOD - MFRSR AOD) and yields the following expressions for correlations between different instruments: DOAS AOD = - (0.019 ± 0.006) + (1.03 ± 0.02)×CIMEL AOD ( R 2 = 0.98), DOAS AOD = -(0.006 ± 0.005)+(1.08 ± 0.02)×MFRSR AOD ( R 2 = 0.98), and CIMEL AOD=(0.013 ± 0.004)+(1.05 ± 0.01)× MFRSR AOD ( R 2=0.99). The average g measured by DOAS on both days was 0.66 ± 0.03, with a difference of 0.014 ± 0.05 compared to CIMEL. Active steps to minimize the error in the RSP help to reduce the uncertainty in retrievals of AOD and g. As AOD decreases and SZA increases, the RSP signal-to-noise ratio increases. At AOD 430 ~ 0.4 and 0.10 the absolute AOD errors are ~ 0.014 and 0.003 at 70° SZA and 0.02 and 0.004 at 35°SZA. Inherently calibrated, precise AOD and g measurements are useful to better characterize the aerosol direct effect in urban polluted and remote pristine environments.« less
  • In this study, the multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD 550) over land is ~0.19, and that over oceans is ~0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD 550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity.more » We employ radiative transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 < AOD 430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD 430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD 430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD 430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), –0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), –0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMEL AOD –MFRSR AOD) and yields the following expressions for correlations between different instruments: DOAS AOD = –(0.019 ± 0.006) + (1.03 ± 0.02) × CIMEL AOD ( R 2 = 0.98), DOAS AOD = –(0.006 ± 0.005) + (1.08 ± 0.02) × MFRSR AOD ( R 2 = 0.98), and CIMEL AOD = (0.013 ± 0.004) + (1.05 ± 0.01) × MFRSR AOD ( R 2 = 0.99). The average g measured by DOAS on both days was 0.66 ± 0.03, with a difference of 0.014 ± 0.05 compared to CIMEL. Active steps to minimize the error in the RSP help to reduce the uncertainty in retrievals of AOD and g. As AOD decreases and SZA increases, the RSP signal-to-noise ratio increases. At AOD 430 ~0.4 and 0.10 the absolute AOD errors are ~ 0.014 and 0.003 at 70° SZA and 0.02 and 0.004 at 35° SZA. Inherently calibrated, precise AOD and g measurements are useful to better characterize the aerosol direct effect in urban polluted and remote pristine environments.« less
  • A Feature detection and EXtinction retrieval (FEX) algorithm for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Raman lidar (RL) has been developed. Presented here is part 1 of the FEX algorithm: the detection of features including both clouds and aerosols. The approach of FEX is to use multiple quantities— scattering ratios derived using elastic and nitro-gen channel signals from two fields of view, the scattering ratio derived using only the elastic channel, and the total volume depolarization ratio— to identify features using range-dependent detection thresholds. FEX is designed to be context-sensitive with thresholds determined for each profile by calculating the expectedmore » clear-sky signal and noise. The use of multiple quantities pro-vides complementary depictions of cloud and aerosol locations and allows for consistency checks to improve the accuracy of the feature mask. The depolarization ratio is shown to be particularly effective at detecting optically-thin features containing non-spherical particles such as cirrus clouds. Improve-ments over the existing ARM RL cloud mask are shown. The performance of FEX is validated against a collocated micropulse lidar and observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite over the ARM Darwin, Australia site. While we focus on a specific lidar system, the FEX framework presented here is suitable for other Raman or high spectral resolution lidars.« less
  • Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) during the remote cloud sensing (RCS) intensive operations period (IOP) at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) southern Great Plains (SGP) site during two nights in April 1994 are discussed. These profiles are shown to be consistent with the simultaneous aerosol size distribution measurements made by a PCASP (Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe) optical particle counter flown on the University of North Dakota Citation aircraft. We describe a technique which uses both lidar and PCASP measurements to derive the dependence ofmore » particle size on relative humidity, the aerosol real refractive index {ital n}, and estimate the effective single-scattering albedo {omega}{sub 0}. Values of {ital n} ranged between 1.4{endash}1.5 (dry) and 1.37{endash}1.47 (wet); {omega}{sub 0} varied between 0.7 and 1.0. The single-scattering albedo derived from this technique is sensitive to the manner in which absorbing particles are represented in the aerosol mixture; representing the absorbing particles as an internal mixture rather than the external mixture assumed here results in generally higher values of {omega}{sub 0}. The lidar measurements indicate that the change in particle size with relative humidity as measured by the PCASP can be represented in the form discussed by {ital Hanel} [1976] with the exponent {gamma}=0.3{plus_minus}0.05. The variations in aerosol optical and physical characteristics captured in the lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements are discussed in the context of the meteorological conditions observed during the experiment. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union« less