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Title: Consequences of CCD imperfections for cosmology determined by weak lensing surveys: from laboratory measurements to cosmological parameter bias

Abstract

Weak gravitational lensing causes subtle changes in the apparent shapes of galaxies due to the bending of light by the gravity of foreground masses. By measuring the shapes of large numbers of galaxies (millions in recent surveys, up to tens of billions in future surveys) we can infer the parameters that determine cosmology. Imperfections in the detectors used to record images of the sky can introduce changes in the apparent shape of galaxies, which in turn can bias the inferred cosmological parameters. Here in this paper we consider the effect of two widely discussed sensor imperfections: tree-rings, due to impurity gradients which cause transverse electric fields in the Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD), and pixel-size variation, due to periodic CCD fabrication errors. These imperfections can be observed when the detectors are subject to uniform illumination (flat field images). We develop methods to determine the spurious shear and convergence (due to the imperfections) from the flat-field images. We calculate how the spurious shear when added to the lensing shear will bias the determination of cosmological parameters. We apply our methods to candidate sensors of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) as a timely and important example, analyzing flat field images recorded with LSSTmore » prototype CCDs in the laboratory. In conclusion, we find that tree-rings and periodic pixel-size variation present in the LSST CCDs will introduce negligible bias to cosmological parameters determined from the lensing power spectrum, specifically w,Ω m and σ 8.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Nishina Center (RIKEN), Wako (Japan); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). RIKEN Research Center
  2. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  4. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), La Canada Flintridge, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.
  5. Nishina Center (RIKEN), Wako (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1260145
Report Number(s):
BNL-112138-2016-JA; BNL-112370-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; KA2301020
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704; AC02- 98CH10886; SC00112704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 825; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; cosmological parameters; cosmology: miscellaneous; cosmology: observations; instrumentation:; instrumentation: detectors

Citation Formats

Okura, Yuki, Petri, Andrea, May, Morgan, Plazas, Andrés A., and Tamagawa, Toru. Consequences of CCD imperfections for cosmology determined by weak lensing surveys: from laboratory measurements to cosmological parameter bias. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/825/1/61.
Okura, Yuki, Petri, Andrea, May, Morgan, Plazas, Andrés A., & Tamagawa, Toru. Consequences of CCD imperfections for cosmology determined by weak lensing surveys: from laboratory measurements to cosmological parameter bias. United States. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/825/1/61.
Okura, Yuki, Petri, Andrea, May, Morgan, Plazas, Andrés A., and Tamagawa, Toru. 2016. "Consequences of CCD imperfections for cosmology determined by weak lensing surveys: from laboratory measurements to cosmological parameter bias". United States. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/825/1/61. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1260145.
@article{osti_1260145,
title = {Consequences of CCD imperfections for cosmology determined by weak lensing surveys: from laboratory measurements to cosmological parameter bias},
author = {Okura, Yuki and Petri, Andrea and May, Morgan and Plazas, Andrés A. and Tamagawa, Toru},
abstractNote = {Weak gravitational lensing causes subtle changes in the apparent shapes of galaxies due to the bending of light by the gravity of foreground masses. By measuring the shapes of large numbers of galaxies (millions in recent surveys, up to tens of billions in future surveys) we can infer the parameters that determine cosmology. Imperfections in the detectors used to record images of the sky can introduce changes in the apparent shape of galaxies, which in turn can bias the inferred cosmological parameters. Here in this paper we consider the effect of two widely discussed sensor imperfections: tree-rings, due to impurity gradients which cause transverse electric fields in the Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD), and pixel-size variation, due to periodic CCD fabrication errors. These imperfections can be observed when the detectors are subject to uniform illumination (flat field images). We develop methods to determine the spurious shear and convergence (due to the imperfections) from the flat-field images. We calculate how the spurious shear when added to the lensing shear will bias the determination of cosmological parameters. We apply our methods to candidate sensors of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) as a timely and important example, analyzing flat field images recorded with LSST prototype CCDs in the laboratory. In conclusion, we find that tree-rings and periodic pixel-size variation present in the LSST CCDs will introduce negligible bias to cosmological parameters determined from the lensing power spectrum, specifically w,Ωm and σ8.},
doi = {10.3847/0004-637X/825/1/61},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 825,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}

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  • Weak gravitational lensing causes subtle changes in the apparent shapes of galaxies due to the bending of light by the gravity of foreground masses. By measuring the shapes of large numbers of galaxies (millions in recent surveys, up to tens of billions in future surveys) we can infer the parameters that determine cosmology. Imperfections in the detectors used to record images of the sky can introduce changes in the apparent shapes of galaxies, which in turn can bias the inferred cosmological parameters. In this paper we consider the effect of two widely discussed sensor imperfections: tree rings, due to impurity gradients that cause transverse electric fields in the charge-coupled devices (CCDs), and pixel size variation, due to periodic CCD fabrication errors. These imperfections can be observed when the detectors are subject to uniform illumination (flat-field images). We develop methods to determine the spurious shear and convergence (due to the imperfections) from the flat-field images. We calculate how the spurious shear when added to the lensing shear will bias the determination of cosmological parameters. We apply our methods to candidate sensors of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) as a timely and important example, analyzing flat-field images recorded with LSST prototype CCDs in the laboratory. Here, we find that tree rings and periodic pixel size variation present in the LSST CCDs will introduce negligible bias to cosmological parameters determined from the lensing power spectrum, specifically w,more » $${{\rm{\Omega }}}_{m}$$, and $${\sigma }_{8}$$.« less
  • Cross correlations between the galaxy number density in a lensing source sample and that in an overlapping spectroscopic sample can in principle be used to calibrate the lensing source redshift distribution. In this paper, we study in detail to what extent this cross-correlation method can mitigate the loss of cosmological information in upcoming weak lensing surveys (combined with a cosmic microwave background prior) due to lack of knowledge of the source distribution. We consider a scenario where photometric redshifts are available and find that, unless the photometric redshift distribution p(z {sub ph}|z) is calibrated very accurately a priori (bias andmore » scatter known to ∼0.002 for, e.g., EUCLID), the additional constraint on p(z {sub ph}|z) from the cross-correlation technique to a large extent restores the cosmological information originally lost due to the uncertainty in dn/dz(z). Considering only the gain in photo-z accuracy and not the additional cosmological information, enhancements of the dark energy figure of merit of up to a factor of four (40) can be achieved for a SuMIRe-like (EUCLID-like) combination of lensing and redshift surveys, where SuMIRe stands for Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts). However, the success of the method is strongly sensitive to our knowledge of the galaxy bias evolution in the source sample and we find that a percent level bias prior is needed to optimize the gains from the cross-correlation method (i.e., to approach the cosmology constraints attainable if the bias was known exactly).« less
  • We research, residual errors in shear measurements, after corrections for instrument systematics and atmospheric effects, can impact cosmological parameters derived from weak lensing observations. Here we combine convergence maps from our suite of ray-tracing simulations with random realizations of spurious shear. This allows us to quantify the errors and biases of the triplet (Ω m,w,σ 8) derived from the power spectrum (PS), as well as from three different sets of non-Gaussian statistics of the lensing convergence field: Minkowski functionals (MFs), low-order moments (LMs), and peak counts (PKs). Our main results are as follows: (i) We find an order of magnitudemore » smaller biases from the PS than in previous work. (ii) The PS and LM yield biases much smaller than the morphological statistics (MF, PK). (iii) For strictly Gaussian spurious shear with integrated amplitude as low as its current estimate of σ sys 2 ≈ 10 -7, biases from the PS and LM would be unimportant even for a survey with the statistical power of Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. However, we find that for surveys larger than ≈ 100 deg 2, non-Gaussianity in the noise (not included in our analysis) will likely be important and must be quantified to assess the biases. (iv) The morphological statistics (MF, PK) introduce important biases even for Gaussian noise, which must be corrected in large surveys. The biases are in different directions in (Ωm,w,σ8) parameter space, allowing self-calibration by combining multiple statistics. Our results warrant follow-up studies with more extensive lensing simulations and more accurate spurious shear estimates.« less
  • Cited by 4
  • In the theory of structure formation, galaxies are biased tracers of the underlying matter density field. The statistical relation between galaxy and matter density field is commonly referred to as galaxy bias. In this paper, we test the linear bias model with weak-lensing and galaxy clustering measurements in the 2 deg{sup 2} COSMOS field. We estimate the bias of galaxies between redshifts z = 0.2 and z = 1 and over correlation scales between R = 0.2 h{sup -1} Mpc and R = 15 h{sup -1} Mpc. We focus on three galaxy samples, selected in flux (simultaneous cuts I{sub 814W}more » < 26.5 and K{sub s} < 24) and in stellar mass (10{sup 9} < M{sub *} < 10{sup 10} h{sup -2} M{sub Sun} and 10{sup 10} < M{sub *} < 10{sup 11} h{sup -2} M{sub Sun }). At scales R > 2 h{sup -1} Mpc, our measurements support a model of bias increasing with redshift. The Tinker et al. fitting function provides a good fit to the data. We find the best-fit mass of the galaxy halos to be log (M{sub 200}/h{sup -1} M{sub Sun }) = 11.7{sup +0.6}{sub -1.3} and log (M{sub 200}/h{sup -1} M{sub Sun }) = 12.4{sup +0.2}{sub -2.9}, respectively, for the low and high stellar-mass samples. In the halo model framework, bias is scale dependent with a change of slope at the transition scale between the one and the two halo terms. We detect a scale dependence of bias with a turndown at scale R = 2.3 {+-} 1.5 h{sup -1} Mpc, in agreement with previous galaxy clustering studies. We find no significant amount of stochasticity, suggesting that a linear bias model is sufficient to describe our data. We use N-body simulations to quantify both the amount of cosmic variance and systematic errors in the measurement.« less