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Title: The state of understanding of the lithium-ion-battery graphite solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and its relationship to formation cycling

Abstract

An in-depth review is presented on the science of lithium-ion battery (LIB) solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation on the graphite anode, including structure, morphology, chemical composition, electrochemistry, formation mechanism, and LIB formation cycling. During initial operation of LIBs, the SEI layer forms on the graphite surfaces, the most commonly used anode material, due to side reactions with the electrolyte solvent/salt at low electro-reduction potentials. It is accepted that the SEI layer is essential to the long-term performance of LIBs, and it also has an impact on its initial capacity loss, self-discharge characteristics, cycle life, rate capability, and safety. While the presence of the anode SEI layer is vital, it is difficult to control its formation and growth, as the chemical composition, morphology, and stability depend on several factors. These factors include the type of graphite, electrolyte composition, electrochemical conditions, and cell temperature. Thus, SEI layer formation and electrochemical stability over long-term operation should be a primary topic of future investigation in the development of LIB technology. We review the progression of knowledge gained about the anode SEI, from its discovery in 1979 to the current state of understanding, and covers its formation process, differences in the chemical and structural makeupmore » when cell materials and components are varied, methods of characterization, and associated reactions with the liquid electrolyte phase. It also discusses the relationship of the SEI layer to the LIB formation step, which involves both electrolyte wetting and subsequent slow charge-discharge cycles to grow the SEI.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center (NTRC); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1248056
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1248766
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Carbon
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Carbon Journal Volume: 105 Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0008-6223
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; SEI; review

Citation Formats

An, Seong Jin, Li, Jianlin, Daniel, Claus, Mohanty, Debasish, Nagpure, Shrikant, and Wood, III, David L. The state of understanding of the lithium-ion-battery graphite solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and its relationship to formation cycling. United Kingdom: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2016.04.008.
An, Seong Jin, Li, Jianlin, Daniel, Claus, Mohanty, Debasish, Nagpure, Shrikant, & Wood, III, David L. The state of understanding of the lithium-ion-battery graphite solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and its relationship to formation cycling. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.04.008
An, Seong Jin, Li, Jianlin, Daniel, Claus, Mohanty, Debasish, Nagpure, Shrikant, and Wood, III, David L. Mon . "The state of understanding of the lithium-ion-battery graphite solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and its relationship to formation cycling". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.04.008.
@article{osti_1248056,
title = {The state of understanding of the lithium-ion-battery graphite solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and its relationship to formation cycling},
author = {An, Seong Jin and Li, Jianlin and Daniel, Claus and Mohanty, Debasish and Nagpure, Shrikant and Wood, III, David L.},
abstractNote = {An in-depth review is presented on the science of lithium-ion battery (LIB) solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation on the graphite anode, including structure, morphology, chemical composition, electrochemistry, formation mechanism, and LIB formation cycling. During initial operation of LIBs, the SEI layer forms on the graphite surfaces, the most commonly used anode material, due to side reactions with the electrolyte solvent/salt at low electro-reduction potentials. It is accepted that the SEI layer is essential to the long-term performance of LIBs, and it also has an impact on its initial capacity loss, self-discharge characteristics, cycle life, rate capability, and safety. While the presence of the anode SEI layer is vital, it is difficult to control its formation and growth, as the chemical composition, morphology, and stability depend on several factors. These factors include the type of graphite, electrolyte composition, electrochemical conditions, and cell temperature. Thus, SEI layer formation and electrochemical stability over long-term operation should be a primary topic of future investigation in the development of LIB technology. We review the progression of knowledge gained about the anode SEI, from its discovery in 1979 to the current state of understanding, and covers its formation process, differences in the chemical and structural makeup when cell materials and components are varied, methods of characterization, and associated reactions with the liquid electrolyte phase. It also discusses the relationship of the SEI layer to the LIB formation step, which involves both electrolyte wetting and subsequent slow charge-discharge cycles to grow the SEI.},
doi = {10.1016/j.carbon.2016.04.008},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1248056}, journal = {Carbon},
issn = {0008-6223},
number = C,
volume = 105,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2016},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.04.008

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