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Title: Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

Abstract

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to breakmore » even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Building Technologies Office (EE-5B) (Building America)
OSTI Identifier:
1220122
Report Number(s):
NREL/TP-500-58594
6356
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Water heating; heat pump water heater; breakeven cost; electric water heater; gas water heater; HPWH

Citation Formats

Maguire, Jeff, Burch, Jay, Merrigan, Tim, and Ong, Sean. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.2172/1220122.
Maguire, Jeff, Burch, Jay, Merrigan, Tim, & Ong, Sean. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1220122
Maguire, Jeff, Burch, Jay, Merrigan, Tim, and Ong, Sean. Mon . "Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1220122. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1220122.
@article{osti_1220122,
title = {Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States},
author = {Maguire, Jeff and Burch, Jay and Merrigan, Tim and Ong, Sean},
abstractNote = {Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.},
doi = {10.2172/1220122},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1220122}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2013},
month = {7}
}