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Title: Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Integration Requirements Study. Providing Guidance on Technology Development and Demonstration

Abstract

The report begins with a discussion of the current state of the energy and transportation systems, followed by a summary of some VGI scenarios and opportunities. The current efforts to create foundational interface standards are detailed, and the requirements for enabling PEVs as a grid resource are presented. Existing technology demonstrations that include vehicle to grid functions are summarized. The report also includes a data-based discussion on the magnitude and variability of PEVs as a grid resource, followed by an overview of existing simulation tools that vi This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. can be used to explore the expansion of VGI to larger grid functions that might offer system and customer value. The document concludes with a summary of the requirements and potential action items that would support greater adoption of VGI.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [5];  [6]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  3. Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  5. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  6. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1215186
Report Number(s):
NREL/TP-5400-63963
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; plug-in electric vehicle; PEV; vehicle grid integration; National Renewable Energy Laboratory; NREL

Citation Formats

Markel, T., Meintz, A., Hardy, K., Chen, B., Bohn, T., Smart, J., Scoffield, D., Hovsapian, R., Saxena, S., MacDonald, J., Kiliccote, S., Kahl, K., and Pratt, R. Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Integration Requirements Study. Providing Guidance on Technology Development and Demonstration. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.2172/1215186.
Markel, T., Meintz, A., Hardy, K., Chen, B., Bohn, T., Smart, J., Scoffield, D., Hovsapian, R., Saxena, S., MacDonald, J., Kiliccote, S., Kahl, K., & Pratt, R. Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Integration Requirements Study. Providing Guidance on Technology Development and Demonstration. United States. doi:10.2172/1215186.
Markel, T., Meintz, A., Hardy, K., Chen, B., Bohn, T., Smart, J., Scoffield, D., Hovsapian, R., Saxena, S., MacDonald, J., Kiliccote, S., Kahl, K., and Pratt, R. Thu . "Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Integration Requirements Study. Providing Guidance on Technology Development and Demonstration". United States. doi:10.2172/1215186. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1215186.
@article{osti_1215186,
title = {Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Integration Requirements Study. Providing Guidance on Technology Development and Demonstration},
author = {Markel, T. and Meintz, A. and Hardy, K. and Chen, B. and Bohn, T. and Smart, J. and Scoffield, D. and Hovsapian, R. and Saxena, S. and MacDonald, J. and Kiliccote, S. and Kahl, K. and Pratt, R.},
abstractNote = {The report begins with a discussion of the current state of the energy and transportation systems, followed by a summary of some VGI scenarios and opportunities. The current efforts to create foundational interface standards are detailed, and the requirements for enabling PEVs as a grid resource are presented. Existing technology demonstrations that include vehicle to grid functions are summarized. The report also includes a data-based discussion on the magnitude and variability of PEVs as a grid resource, followed by an overview of existing simulation tools that vi This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. can be used to explore the expansion of VGI to larger grid functions that might offer system and customer value. The document concludes with a summary of the requirements and potential action items that would support greater adoption of VGI.},
doi = {10.2172/1215186},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu May 28 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Thu May 28 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration (PNWSGD), a $179 million project that was co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in late 2009, was one of the largest and most comprehensive demonstrations of electricity grid modernization ever completed. The project was one of 16 regional smart grid demonstrations funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. It was the only demonstration that included multiple states and cooperation from multiple electric utilities, including rural electric co-ops, investor-owned, municipal, and other public utilities. No fewer than 55 unique instantiations of distinct smart grid systems were demonstrated at the projects’ sites. Themore » local objectives for these systems included improved reliability, energy conservation, improved efficiency, and demand responsiveness. The demonstration developed and deployed an innovative transactive system, unique in the world, that coordinated many of the project’s distributed energy resources and demand-responsive components. With the transactive system, additional regional objectives were also addressed, including the mitigation of renewable energy intermittency and the flattening of system load. Using the transactive system, the project coordinated a regional response across the 11 utilities. This region-wide connection from the transmission system down to individual premises equipment was one of the major successes of the project. The project showed that this can be done and assets at the end points can respond dynamically on a wide scale. In principle, a transactive system of this type might eventually help coordinate electricity supply, transmission, distribution, and end uses by distributing mostly automated control responsibilities among the many distributed smart grid domain members and their smart devices.« less
  • The objective of this Smart Grid Inverter (SGI) project is to implement, on operating utility distribution feeders with “very high” penetration of rooftop PV, enhanced capability smart inverters to achieve improved operational performance, control and visibility. This is accomplished by creating, deploying, and evaluating new smart inverters using integrated inverter management control software (IMCS) and standards-based communications systems. Detailed distribution modeling is also employed to aid in development of inverter control algorithms/settings. The project will test various inverter control strategies in two project deployment locations – Maui, Hawai’i and Maryland/Washington D.C.
  • ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the project evaluated HAN devices such as smart appliances, programmable communicating thermostats, and home energy management components. The homes were also equipped with energy storage, solar PV systems, and a number ofmore » energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The team used one block of homes to evaluate strategies and technologies for achieving ZNE. A home achieves ZNE when it produces at least as much renewable energy as the amount of energy it consumes annually. The project also assessed the impact of device-specific demand response (DR), as well as load management capabilities involving energy storage devices and plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. In addition, the ISGD project sought to better understand the impact of ZNE homes on the electric grid. ISGD’s SENet enabled end-to-end interoperability between multiple vendors’ systems and devices, while also providing a level of cybersecurity that is essential to smart grid development and adoption across the nation. The ISGD project includes a series of sub-projects grouped into four logical technology domains: Smart Energy Customer Solutions, Next-Generation Distribution System, Interoperability and Cybersecurity, and Workforce of the Future. Section 2.3 provides a more detailed overview of these domains.« less
  • NREL and Ideal Power Converters (IPC) will jointly develop and demonstrate a hybrid power converter system integrating bi-directional electric vehicle charging, photovoltaic generation, and stationary battery storage using IPC's 3-Port Hybrid Converter. The organizations will also jointly investigate synergies in tightly integrating these separate power conversion systems.
  • The original scope of work was to obtain and analyze existing and emerging data in four states: California, Florida, New York, and Wisconsin. The goal of this data collection was to deliver a baseline database or recommendations for such a database that could possibly contain window and daylighting features and energy performance characteristics of Kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) school buildings (or those of classrooms when available). In particular, data analyses were performed based upon the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) databases to understand school energy use, features of window glazing, and availability of daylighting in California K-12 schools. Themore » outcomes from this baseline task can be used to assist in establishing a database of school energy performance, assessing applications of existing technologies relevant to window and daylighting design, and identifying future R&D needs. These are in line with the overall project goals as outlined in the proposal. Through the review and analysis of this data, it is clear that there are many compounding factors impacting energy use in K-12 school buildings in the U.S., and that there are various challenges in understanding the impact of K-12 classroom energy use associated with design features of window glazing and skylight. First, the energy data in the existing CEUS databases has, at most, provided the aggregated electricity and/or gas usages for the building establishments that include other school facilities on top of the classroom spaces. Although the percentage of classroom floor area in schools is often available from the databases, there is no additional information that can be used to quantitatively segregate the EUI for classroom spaces. In order to quantify the EUI for classrooms, sub-metering of energy usage by classrooms must be obtained. Second, magnitudes of energy use for electricity lighting are not attainable from the existing databases, nor are the lighting levels contributed by artificial lighting or daylight. It is impossible to reasonably estimate the lighting energy consumption for classroom areas in the sample of schools studied in this project. Third, there are many other compounding factors that may as well influence the overall classroom energy use, e.g., ventilation, insulation, system efficiency, occupancy, control, schedules, and weather. Fourth, although we have examined the school EUI grouped by various factors such as climate zones, window and daylighting design features from the California databases, no statistically significant associations can be identified from the sampled California K-12 schools in the current California CEUS. There are opportunities to expand such analyses by developing and including more powerful CEUS databases in the future. Finally, a list of parameters is recommended for future database development and for use of future investigation in K-12 classroom energy use, window and skylight design, and possible relations between them. Some of the key parameters include: (1) Energy end use data for lighting systems, classrooms, and schools; (2) Building design and operation including features for windows and daylighting; and (3) Other key parameters and information that would be available to investigate overall energy uses, building and systems design, their operation, and services provided.« less