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Title: Dehydration of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to Uranyl Nitrate Trihydrate under Ambient Conditions as Observed via Dynamic Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

Abstract

the hexahydrate [UO 2(NO 3) 2(H 2O) 6] (UNH) and the trihydrate [UO 2(NO 3) 2(H 2O) 3] (UNT) forms. Their stabilities depend on both relative humidity and temperature. Both phases have previously been studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy, but the data were limited by both instrumental resolution and the ability to prepare the samples as pellets without desiccating them. We report time-resolved infrared (IR) measurements using an integrating sphere that allow us to observe the transformation from the hexahydrate to the trihydrate simply by flowing dry nitrogen gas over the sample. Hexahydrate samples were prepared and confirmed via known XRD patterns, then measured in reflectance mode. The hexahydrate has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm -1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample dehydrates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a blue edge shoulder but ultimately resulting in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm -1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT since UNT has two non-equivalent UO 2 2+ sites. The dehydration of UO 2(NO 3) 2(H 2O) 6 to UO 2(NO 3) 2(H 2O) 3 is both a morphological and structural changemore » that has the lustrous lime green crystals changing to the dull greenish yellow of the trihydrate. Crystal structures and phase transformation were confirmed theoretically using DFT calculations and experimentally via microscopy methods. Both methods showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, as opposed to a single crystallographic site in the hexahydrate.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1194294
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-109717
NN2001000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XVI, April 20, 2015, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, 9455:Article No.945504
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Johnson, Timothy J., Sweet, Lucas E., Meier, David E., Mausolf, Edward J., Kim, Eunja, Weck, Philippe F., Buck, Edgar C., and McNamara, Bruce K. Dehydration of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to Uranyl Nitrate Trihydrate under Ambient Conditions as Observed via Dynamic Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1117/12.2179704.
Johnson, Timothy J., Sweet, Lucas E., Meier, David E., Mausolf, Edward J., Kim, Eunja, Weck, Philippe F., Buck, Edgar C., & McNamara, Bruce K. Dehydration of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to Uranyl Nitrate Trihydrate under Ambient Conditions as Observed via Dynamic Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. United States. doi:10.1117/12.2179704.
Johnson, Timothy J., Sweet, Lucas E., Meier, David E., Mausolf, Edward J., Kim, Eunja, Weck, Philippe F., Buck, Edgar C., and McNamara, Bruce K. Fri . "Dehydration of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to Uranyl Nitrate Trihydrate under Ambient Conditions as Observed via Dynamic Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy". United States. doi:10.1117/12.2179704.
@article{osti_1194294,
title = {Dehydration of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to Uranyl Nitrate Trihydrate under Ambient Conditions as Observed via Dynamic Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy},
author = {Johnson, Timothy J. and Sweet, Lucas E. and Meier, David E. and Mausolf, Edward J. and Kim, Eunja and Weck, Philippe F. and Buck, Edgar C. and McNamara, Bruce K.},
abstractNote = {the hexahydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] (UNH) and the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3] (UNT) forms. Their stabilities depend on both relative humidity and temperature. Both phases have previously been studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy, but the data were limited by both instrumental resolution and the ability to prepare the samples as pellets without desiccating them. We report time-resolved infrared (IR) measurements using an integrating sphere that allow us to observe the transformation from the hexahydrate to the trihydrate simply by flowing dry nitrogen gas over the sample. Hexahydrate samples were prepared and confirmed via known XRD patterns, then measured in reflectance mode. The hexahydrate has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm-1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample dehydrates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a blue edge shoulder but ultimately resulting in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm-1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT since UNT has two non-equivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a morphological and structural change that has the lustrous lime green crystals changing to the dull greenish yellow of the trihydrate. Crystal structures and phase transformation were confirmed theoretically using DFT calculations and experimentally via microscopy methods. Both methods showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, as opposed to a single crystallographic site in the hexahydrate.},
doi = {10.1117/12.2179704},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri May 22 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Fri May 22 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}

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  • Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy, but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparationmore » and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm-1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm-1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. The phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with but one in the hexahydrate.« less
  • Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO 2(NO 3) 2(H 2O) 6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO 2(NO 3) 2(H 2O) 3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO 2(NO 3) 2(H 2O) 2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s, the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples formore » transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparation and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N 2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO 2(NO 3) 2(H 2O) 6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm –1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm –1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO 2 2+ sites. The dehydration of UO 2(NO 3) 2(H 2O) 6 to UO 2(NO 3) 2(H 2O) 3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO 2(NO 3) 2(H 2O) 6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. As a result, the phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with only one in the hexahydrate.« less