skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Environmental Survey for Four Pathogenic Bacteria and Closely Related Species Using Phylogenetic and Functional Genes*

; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Joint Genome Institute (JGI)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER)
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Forensic Sciences; Journal Volume: 51; Journal Issue: 3
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Cheryl R.,Kuske, Susan M.,Barns, Christy C.,Grow, Lori,Merrill, and John,Dunbar. Environmental Survey for Four Pathogenic Bacteria and Closely Related Species Using Phylogenetic and Functional Genes*. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00131.x.
Cheryl R.,Kuske, Susan M.,Barns, Christy C.,Grow, Lori,Merrill, & John,Dunbar. Environmental Survey for Four Pathogenic Bacteria and Closely Related Species Using Phylogenetic and Functional Genes*. United States. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00131.x.
Cheryl R.,Kuske, Susan M.,Barns, Christy C.,Grow, Lori,Merrill, and John,Dunbar. Mon . "Environmental Survey for Four Pathogenic Bacteria and Closely Related Species Using Phylogenetic and Functional Genes*". United States. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00131.x.
title = {Environmental Survey for Four Pathogenic Bacteria and Closely Related Species Using Phylogenetic and Functional Genes*},
author = {Cheryl R.,Kuske and Susan M.,Barns and Christy C.,Grow and Lori,Merrill and John,Dunbar},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00131.x},
journal = {Journal of Forensic Sciences},
number = 3,
volume = 51,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
  • Specific human subtelomeric DNA probes were used to reveal cryptic chromosomal rearrangements that cannot be detected by conventional high resolution cytogenetic techniques, or by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization using whole chromosome paint analysis. Two cosmids containing different subtelomeric DNA sequences were derived from human chromosome 19 and designated as 7501 and 16432. Cosmid 7501 was hybridized to chromosomes from humans, chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan. In humans, 7501 consistently labeled chromosomes 3q, 15q, and 19p. Additional chromosomes were labeled in different individuals, indicating a polymorphic distribution of this sequence in the human genome. In contrast, 7501 consistently and strongly labeledmore » only the q arm terminus of chromosome 3 in both chimp and gorilla. The identification of the chromosome was made by two-color FISH analysis using human chromosome 4-specific paint and homologous to human chromosome 4. None of the human subjects showed labeling of chromosome 4 with 7501. This finding suggests that in the course of human evolution, subsequent to the divergence of humans and African apes, a cryptic translocation occurred between the ancestral human chromosome 4 and one or more of the other human chromosomes that now contain this DNA segment. In orangutan, 7501 labeled a single acrocentric chromosome pair, a distinctly different chromosome than that labeled in chimp and gorilla. Comparison of chromosome sites labeled with cosmid 16432 showed the distribution of signals on chromosome 1q arm is the same for humans and chimp, but different in the gorilla. Humans and chimps show distinct labeling on sites 1q terminus and 1q41-42. In gorilla, there is instead a large cluster of intense signal near the terminus of 1q that clearly does not extend all the way to the terminus. A paracentric inversion or an unequal cross-over event may account for the observed difference between these species.« less
  • The 16S rRNA and pmoA genes from natural populations of methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) were PCR amplified from total community DNA extracted from Lake Washington sediments obtained from the area where peak methane oxidation occurred. Clone libraries were constructed for each of the genes, and approximately 200 clones from each library were analyzed by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and the tetrameric restriction enzymes, MspI, HaeIII, and HhaI. The PCR products were grouped based on their RFLP patterns, and representatives of each group were sequenced and analyzed. Studies of the 16S rRNA data obtained indicated that the existing primers didmore » not reveal the total methanotrophic diversity present when these data were compared with pure-culture data obtained from the same environment. New primers specific for methanotrophs belonging to the genera Methylomonas, Methylosinus, and Methylocystis were developed and used to construct more complete clone libraries. Furthermore, a new primer was designed for one of the genes of the particulate methane monooxygenase in methanotrophs, pmoA. Phylogenetic analyses of both the 16S rRNA and pmoA gene sequences indicated that the new primers should detect these genes over the known diversity in methanotrophs. In addition to these findings, 16S rRNA data obtained in this study were combined with previously described phylogenetic data in order to identify operational taxonomic units that can be used to identify methanotrophs at the genus level.« less
  • Cosmids containing human genes for orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GPR12, GPR6, and GPR3, were isolated using their rat homologs as probes. Previous studies of the mouse and rat cDNAs have shown the receptors to be expressed primarily in brain but have failed to identify their ligands. The three receptor proteins of 334, 363, and 330 amino acids, respectively, are encoded by a single exon in each gene. Excluding the divergent sequences preceding the first transmembrane domain, they have {approximately}60% amino acid identity with each other. Flurorescence in situ hybridization of GPR12, GPR6, and GPR3 localized these three genes to humanmore » chromosomal regions 13q12, 6q21, and 1p34.3-p36.1, respectively. 9 refs., 2 figs.« less
  • The database of Alignable Tight Genomic Clusters (ATGCs) consists of closely related genomes of archaea and bacteria, and is a resource for research into prokaryotic microevolution. Construction of a data set with appropriate characteristics is a major hurdle for this type of studies. With the current rate of genome sequencing, it is difficult to follow the progress of the field and to determine which of the available genome sets meet the requirements of a given research project, in particular, with respect to the minimum and maximum levels of similarity between the included genomes. Additionally, extraction of specific content, such asmore » genomic alignments or families of orthologs, from a selected set of genomes is a complicated and time-consuming process. The database addresses these problems by providing an intuitive and efficient web interface to browse precomputed ATGCs, select appropriate ones and access ATGC-derived data such as multiple alignments of orthologous proteins, matrices of pairwise intergenomic distances based on genome-wide analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates and others. The ATGC database will be regularly updated following new releases of the NCBI RefSeq. The database is hosted by the Genomics Division at Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory and is publicly available at« less
  • The 16s rRNA gene is so far the most widely used marker for taxonomical classification and separation of prokaryotes. Since it is universally conserved among prokaryotes, it is possible to use this gene to classify a broad range of prokaryotic organisms. At the same time, it has often been noted that the 16s rRNA gene is too conserved to separate between prokaryotes at finer taxonomic levels. In this paper, we examine how well levels of similarity of 16s rRNA and 73 additional universal or nearly universal marker genes correlate with genome-wide levels of gene sequence similarity. We demonstrate that themore » percent identity of 16s rRNA predicts genome-wide levels of similarity very well for distantly related prokaryotes, but not for closely related ones. In closely related prokaryotes, we find that there are many other marker genes for which levels of similarity are much more predictive of genome-wide levels of gene sequence similarity. Finally, we show that the identities of the markers that are most useful for predicting genome-wide levels of similarity within closely related prokaryotic lineages vary greatly between lineages. However, the most useful markers are always those that are least conserved in their sequences within each lineage. In conclusion, our results show that by choosing markers that are less conserved in their sequences within a lineage of interest, it is possible to better predict genome-wide gene sequence similarity between closely related prokaryotes than is possible using the 16s rRNA gene. We point readers towards a database we have created (POGO-DB) that can be used to easily establish which markers show lowest levels of sequence conservation within different prokaryotic lineages.« less