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Title: Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning

Abstract

Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
  2. Greenpeace International`s Disarmament Campaign, Washington, DC (United States)
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
115203
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Science and Global Security; Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: PBD: 1995
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
05 NUCLEAR FUELS; 35 ARMS CONTROL; SUBMARINES; DECOMMISSIONING; NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT; INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION; TREATIES; RUSSIAN FEDERATION; NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT; SAFEGUARDS

Citation Formats

Bukharin, O., and Handler, J.. Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning. United States: N. p., 1995. Web. doi:10.1080/08929889508426424.
Bukharin, O., & Handler, J.. Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning. United States. doi:10.1080/08929889508426424.
Bukharin, O., and Handler, J.. Wed . "Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning". United States. doi:10.1080/08929889508426424.
@article{osti_115203,
title = {Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning},
author = {Bukharin, O. and Handler, J.},
abstractNote = {Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems.},
doi = {10.1080/08929889508426424},
journal = {Science and Global Security},
number = 2,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 1995},
month = {Wed Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 1995}
}
  • The Triton"s hull is of 100% welded construction with the exceptions of the deck hatches and torpedo tube doors. They are the only mechanical connections. Manual shielded metal-arc and automatic submerged-arc processes were used in the fusion welding of the hull. The reactor and steam piping were welded by using a combination of the inent-gas shielded tungsten-arc and the metal-arc processes. Copper tubing was silver brazed. The heavy lead shielding was cast and welded by lead burning. All materials were inspected thoroughly both before and after welding. A consumable-insert method of welding was developed to eliminate the crevice between themore » backing ring and pipe caused by conventional methods. Bimetallic welds were used in the heat exchanger system. A description of the Triton is included. (M.C.G.)« less
  • The characteristics and performance of a submarine tanker are discussed and compared with a surface tanker of the same deadweight, both vessels being propelled by nuclear power. The characteristics and performance of s are compared. The curcular form was found superior to surface vessels but it would meet with restrictions at terminal ports due to high speeds are discussed. (C.J.G.)
  • From 1959 up to 1991 nine civil nuclear powered ships were built in Russia: eight ice-breakers and one lash lighter carrier (cargo ship). At the present time three of them were taking out of service: ice-breaker 'Lenin' is decommissioned as a museum and is set for storage in the port of Murmansk, nuclear ice-breakers 'Arktika' and 'Sibir' are berthing. The ice-breakers carrying rad-wastes appear to be a possible source of radiation contamination of Murmansk region and Kola Bay because the ship long-term storage afloat has the negative effect on hull's structures. As the result of this under the auspices ofmore » the Federal Targeted Program 'Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Russia for 2008 and the period until 2015' the conception and projects of decommissioning of nuclear-powered ships are developed by the State corporation Rosatom with the involvement of companies of United Shipbuilding Corporation. In developing the principal provisions of conception of decommissioning and dismantling of icebreakers the technical and economic assessment of dismantling options in ship-repairing enterprises of North-West of Russia was performed. The paper contains description of options, research procedure, analysis of options of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear ice-breakers, taking into account the principle of optimization of potential radioactive effect to personnel, human population and environment. The report's conclusions contain the recommendations for selection of option for development of nuclear icebreaker decommissioning and dismantling projects. (authors)« less
  • Liquid radioactive wastes are produced during the standard decontamination of the reactor loop and liquidation of the consequences of accidents. In performing the disassembly work on decommissioned nuclear-powered submarines, the equipment must first be decontaminated. All this leads to the formation of a large quantity of liquid wastes with a total salt content of more then 3l-5 g/liter and total {beta}-activity of up to 1 {center_dot}10{sup {minus}4} Ci/liter. One of the most effective methods for reprocessing these wastes - evaporation - has limitations: The operating expenses are high and the apparatus requires expensive alloyed steel. The methods of selective sorptionmore » of radionuclides on inorganic sorbents are used for reprocessing liquid wastes form the nuclear-powered fleet. A significant limitation of the method is the large decrease in sorption efficiency with increasing total salt-content of the wastes. In some works, in which electrodialysis is used for purification of the salt wastes, the total salt content can be decreased by a factor of 10-100 and the same quantity of radionuclides can be removed. We have developed an electrodialysis-sorption scheme for purifying salt wastes that makes it possible to remove radionuclides to the radiation safety standard and chemically harmful substances to the health standards. The scheme includes electrodialysis desalinization (by 90% per pass on the EDMS apparatus), followed by additional purification of the diluent on synthetic zeolites and electro-osmotic concentration (to 200-250 g/liter on the EDK apparatus). The secondard wastes---salt concentrates and spent sorbents---are solidified. (This is the entire text of the article.)« less