skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Influence of surface morphology on the immersion mode ice nucleation efficiency of hematite particles

Abstract

In this paper, the effect of the morphological modification of aerosol particles with respect to heterogeneous ice nucleation is comprehensively investigated for laboratory-generated hematite particles as a model substrate for atmospheric dust particles. The surface-area-scaled ice nucleation efficiencies of monodisperse cubic hematite particles and milled hematite particles were measured with a series of expansion cooling experiments using the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) cloud simulation chamber. Complementary offline characterization of physico-chemical properties of both hematite subsets were also carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and an electro-kinetic particle charge detector to further constrain droplet-freezing measurements of hematite particles. Additionally, an empirical parameterization derived from our laboratory measurements was implemented in the single-column version of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) to investigate the model sensitivity in simulated ice crystal number concentration on different ice nucleation efficiencies. From an experimental perspective, our results show that the immersion mode ice nucleation efficiency of milled hematite particles is almost an order of magnitude higher at -35.2 °C < T < -33.5 °C than that of the cubic hematite particles, indicating a substantial effect of morphological irregularities on immersion modemore » freezing. Our modeling results similarly show that the increased droplet-freezing rates of milled hematite particles lead to about one order magnitude higher ice crystal number in the upper troposphere than cubic hematite particles. Finally and overall, our results suggest that the surface irregularities and associated active sites lead to greater ice activation through droplet freezing.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1133987
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-97693
Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324; 400402000; KP1701000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online); Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 5
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Hiranuma, N., Hoffmann, N., Kiselev, A., Dreyer, A., Zhang, K., Kulkarni, G., Koop, T., and Möhler, O. Influence of surface morphology on the immersion mode ice nucleation efficiency of hematite particles. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.5194/acp-14-2315-2014.
Hiranuma, N., Hoffmann, N., Kiselev, A., Dreyer, A., Zhang, K., Kulkarni, G., Koop, T., & Möhler, O. Influence of surface morphology on the immersion mode ice nucleation efficiency of hematite particles. United States. doi:10.5194/acp-14-2315-2014.
Hiranuma, N., Hoffmann, N., Kiselev, A., Dreyer, A., Zhang, K., Kulkarni, G., Koop, T., and Möhler, O. 2014. "Influence of surface morphology on the immersion mode ice nucleation efficiency of hematite particles". United States. doi:10.5194/acp-14-2315-2014.
@article{osti_1133987,
title = {Influence of surface morphology on the immersion mode ice nucleation efficiency of hematite particles},
author = {Hiranuma, N. and Hoffmann, N. and Kiselev, A. and Dreyer, A. and Zhang, K. and Kulkarni, G. and Koop, T. and Möhler, O.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, the effect of the morphological modification of aerosol particles with respect to heterogeneous ice nucleation is comprehensively investigated for laboratory-generated hematite particles as a model substrate for atmospheric dust particles. The surface-area-scaled ice nucleation efficiencies of monodisperse cubic hematite particles and milled hematite particles were measured with a series of expansion cooling experiments using the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) cloud simulation chamber. Complementary offline characterization of physico-chemical properties of both hematite subsets were also carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and an electro-kinetic particle charge detector to further constrain droplet-freezing measurements of hematite particles. Additionally, an empirical parameterization derived from our laboratory measurements was implemented in the single-column version of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) to investigate the model sensitivity in simulated ice crystal number concentration on different ice nucleation efficiencies. From an experimental perspective, our results show that the immersion mode ice nucleation efficiency of milled hematite particles is almost an order of magnitude higher at -35.2 °C < T < -33.5 °C than that of the cubic hematite particles, indicating a substantial effect of morphological irregularities on immersion mode freezing. Our modeling results similarly show that the increased droplet-freezing rates of milled hematite particles lead to about one order magnitude higher ice crystal number in the upper troposphere than cubic hematite particles. Finally and overall, our results suggest that the surface irregularities and associated active sites lead to greater ice activation through droplet freezing.},
doi = {10.5194/acp-14-2315-2014},
journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)},
number = 5,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = 2014,
month = 1
}
  • A new heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization that covers a wide temperature range (-36 °C to -78 °C) is presented. Developing and testing such an ice nucleation parameterization, which is constrained through identical experimental conditions, is critical in order to accurately simulate the ice nucleation processes in cirrus clouds. The surface-scaled ice nucleation efficiencies of hematite particles, inferred by n s, were derived from AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber measurements under water subsaturated conditions that were realized by continuously changing temperature (T) and relative humidity with respect to ice (RH ice) in the chamber. Our measurementsmore » showed several different pathways to nucleate ice depending on T and RH ice conditions. For instance, almost independent freezing was observed at -60 °C < T < -50 °C, where RH ice explicitly controlled ice nucleation efficiency, while both T and RH ice played roles in other two T regimes: -78 °C < T < -60 °C and -50 °C < T < -36 °C. More specifically, observations at T colder than -60 °C revealed that higher RHice was necessary to maintain constant n s, whereas T may have played a significant role in ice nucleation at T warmer than -50 °C. We implemented new n s parameterizations into two cloud models to investigate its sensitivity and compare with the existing ice nucleation schemes towards simulating cirrus cloud properties. Our results show that the new AIDA-based parameterizations lead to an order of magnitude higher ice crystal concentrations and inhibition of homogeneous nucleation in colder temperature regions. Our cloud simulation results suggest that atmospheric dust particles that form ice nuclei at lower temperatures, below -36 °C, can potentially have stronger influence on cloud properties such as cloud longevity and initiation when compared to previous parameterizations.« less
  • Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice-nucleating particles. However, an intercomparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with these techniques.more » Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nuclei Research Unit), we distributed an illite-rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, temperature ( T), cooling rate and nucleation time. A total of 17 measurement methods were involved in the data intercomparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while 10 other instruments employed water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The resulting comprehensive immersion freezing data set was evaluated using the ice nucleation active surface-site density, n s, to develop a representative n s( T) spectrum that spans a wide temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers 9 orders of magnitude in n s. In general, the 17 immersion freezing measurement techniques deviate, within a range of about 8 °C in terms of temperature, by 3 orders of magnitude with respect to n s. In addition, we show evidence that the immersion freezing efficiency expressed in n s of illite NX particles is relatively independent of droplet size, particle mass in suspension, particle size and cooling rate during freezing. A strong temperature dependence and weak time and size dependence of the immersion freezing efficiency of illite-rich clay mineral particles enabled the n s parameterization solely as a function of temperature. We also characterized the n s( T) spectra and identified a section with a steep slope between -20 and -27 °C, where a large fraction of active sites of our test dust may trigger immersion freezing. This slope was followed by a region with a gentler slope at temperatures below -27 °C. While the agreement between different instruments was reasonable below ~ -27 °C, there seemed to be a different trend in the temperature-dependent ice nucleation activity from the suspension and dry-dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust, in particular at higher temperatures. For instance, the ice nucleation activity expressed in n s was smaller for the average of the wet suspended samples and higher for the average of the dry-dispersed aerosol samples between about -27 and -18 °C. Only instruments making measurements with wet suspended samples were able to measure ice nucleation above -18 °C. A possible explanation for the deviation between -27 and -18 °C is discussed. Multiple exponential distribution fits in both linear and log space for both specific surface area-based n s( T) and geometric surface area-based n s( T) are provided. These new fits, constrained by using identical reference samples, will help to compare IN measurement methods that are not included in the present study and IN data from future IN instruments.« less
  • Data from both laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements are used to develop a simple parametric description for the immersion freezing activity of natural mineral dust particles. Measurements made with the Colorado State University (CSU) continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) when processing mineral dust aerosols at a nominal 105% relative humidity with respect to water (RH w) are taken to approximate the immersion freezing nucleation activity of particles. Ice active frozen fractions vs. temperature for dusts representative of Saharan and Asian desert sources were consistent with similar measurements in atmospheric dust plumes for a limited set of comparisons available. The parameterizationmore » developed follows the form of one suggested previously for atmospheric particles of non-specific composition in quantifying ice nucleating particle concentrations as functions of temperature and the total number concentration of particles larger than 0.5 μm diameter. Such an approach does not explicitly account for surface area and time dependencies for ice nucleation, but sufficiently encapsulates the activation properties for potential use in regional and global modeling simulations, and possible application in developing remote sensing retrievals for ice nucleating particles. A correction factor is introduced to account for the apparent underestimate (by approximately 3, on average) of the immersion freezing fraction of mineral dust particles for CSU CFDC data processed at an RH w of 105% vs. maximum fractions active at higher RH w. Instrumental factors that affect activation behavior vs. RH w in CFDC instruments remain to be fully explored in future studies. Nevertheless, the use of this correction factor is supported by comparison to ice activation data obtained for the same aerosols from Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics of the Atmosphere (AIDA) expansion chamber cloud parcel experiments. Further comparison of the new parameterization to the immersion freezing surface active site density parameterization for mineral dust particles, developed separately from AIDA experimental data alone, shows excellent agreement for data collected in a descent through a Saharan aerosol layer. These studies support the utility of laboratory measurements to obtain atmospherically-relevant data on the ice nucleation properties of dust and other particle types, and suggest the suitability of considering all mineral dust as a single type of ice nucleating particle as a useful first order approximation in numerical modeling investigations.« less
  • Data from both laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements are used to develop an empirical parameterization for the immersion freezing activity of natural mineral dust particles. Measurements made with the Colorado State University (CSU) continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) when processing mineral dust aerosols at a nominal 105% relative humidity with respect to water (RH w) are taken as a measure of the immersion freezing nucleation activity of particles. Ice active frozen fractions vs. temperature for dusts representative of Saharan and Asian desert sources were consistent with similar measurements in atmospheric dust plumes for a limited set of comparisons available. Themore » parameterization developed follows the form of one suggested previously for atmospheric particles of non-specific composition in quantifying ice nucleating particle concentrations as functions of temperature and the total number concentration of particles larger than 0.5 μm diameter. Such an approach does not explicitly account for surface area and time dependencies for ice nucleation, but sufficiently encapsulates the activation properties for potential use in regional and global modeling simulations, and possible application in developing remote sensing retrievals for ice nucleating particles. A calibration factor is introduced to account for the apparent underestimate (by approximately 3, on average) of the immersion freezing fraction of mineral dust particles for CSU CFDC data processed at an RH w of 105% vs. maximum fractions active at higher RH w. Instrumental factors that affect activation behavior vs. RH w in CFDC instruments remain to be fully explored in future studies. Nevertheless, the use of this calibration factor is supported by comparison to ice activation data obtained for the same aerosols from Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics of the Atmosphere (AIDA) expansion chamber cloud parcel experiments. Further comparison of the new parameterization, including calibration correction, to predictions of the immersion freezing surface active site density parameterization for mineral dust particles, developed separately from AIDA experimental data alone, shows excellent agreement for data collected in a descent through a Saharan aerosol layer. These studies support the utility of laboratory measurements to obtain atmospherically relevant data on the ice nucleation properties of dust and other particle types, and suggest the suitability of considering all mineral dust as a single type of ice nucleating particle as a useful first-order approximation in numerical modeling investigations.« less
    Cited by 38