skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges

Abstract

The sodium chloride surface is one of the most common platforms for the study of catalysts, thin film growth, and atmospheric aerosols. Here we report a nanoscale periodic modulation pattern on the surface of a cleaved NaCl single crystal, revealed by non-contact atomic force microscopy with a tuning fork sensor. The surface pattern shows two orthogonal domains, extending over the entire cleavage surface. The spatial modulations exhibit a characteristic period of 5.4 nm, along 110 crystallographic directions of the NaCl. The modulations are robust in vacuum, not affected by the tip-induced electric field or gentle annealing (<300 C); however, they are eliminated after exposure to water and an atomically flat surface can be recovered by subsequent thermal annealing after water exposure. A strong electrostatic charging is revealed on the cleavage surface which may facilitate the formation of the observed metastable surface reconstruction.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1038794
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Nanotechnology; Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 18
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; AEROSOLS; ANNEALING; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; CATALYSTS; CLEAVAGE; ELECTRIC FIELDS; ELECTROSTATICS; MODULATION; MONOCRYSTALS; SODIUM CHLORIDES; THIN FILMS; TUNING; WATER

Citation Formats

Clark, Kendal W, Qin, Shengyong, Zhang, Xiaoguang, and Li, An-Ping. Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/23/18/185306.
Clark, Kendal W, Qin, Shengyong, Zhang, Xiaoguang, & Li, An-Ping. Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges. United States. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/23/18/185306.
Clark, Kendal W, Qin, Shengyong, Zhang, Xiaoguang, and Li, An-Ping. 2012. "Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges". United States. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/23/18/185306.
@article{osti_1038794,
title = {Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges},
author = {Clark, Kendal W and Qin, Shengyong and Zhang, Xiaoguang and Li, An-Ping},
abstractNote = {The sodium chloride surface is one of the most common platforms for the study of catalysts, thin film growth, and atmospheric aerosols. Here we report a nanoscale periodic modulation pattern on the surface of a cleaved NaCl single crystal, revealed by non-contact atomic force microscopy with a tuning fork sensor. The surface pattern shows two orthogonal domains, extending over the entire cleavage surface. The spatial modulations exhibit a characteristic period of 5.4 nm, along 110 crystallographic directions of the NaCl. The modulations are robust in vacuum, not affected by the tip-induced electric field or gentle annealing (<300 C); however, they are eliminated after exposure to water and an atomically flat surface can be recovered by subsequent thermal annealing after water exposure. A strong electrostatic charging is revealed on the cleavage surface which may facilitate the formation of the observed metastable surface reconstruction.},
doi = {10.1088/0957-4484/23/18/185306},
journal = {Nanotechnology},
number = 18,
volume = 23,
place = {United States},
year = 2012,
month = 1
}
  • Nanoscale manipulation of surface charges and their imaging are essential for understanding local electronic behaviors of polar materials and advanced electronic devices. Electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy have been extensively used to probe and image local surface charges responsible for electrodynamics and transport phenomena. However, they rely on the weak electric force modulation of cantilever that limits both spatial and temporal resolutions. Here we present a field effect transistor embedded probe that can directly image surface charges on a length scale of 25 nm and a time scale of less than 125 {mu}s. On the basis ofmore » the calculation of net surface charges in a 25 nm diameter ferroelectric domain, we could estimate the charge density resolution to be as low as 0.08 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}, which is equivalent to 1/20 electron per nanometer square at room temperature.« less
  • The structural and electronic structure of single wall carbon nanotubes adsorbed on Au(111) has been investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The nanotubes were dry deposited in situ in ultrahigh vacuum onto a perfectly clean substrate. In some cases, the native herringbone reconstruction of the Au(111) surface interacted directly with adsorbed nanotubes and produced long-range periodic oscillations in their local density of states, corresponding to charge transfer modulations along the tube axis. This effect, however, was observed not systematically for all tubes and only for semiconducting tubes.
  • A highly ordered supramolecular structure is formed in the polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexe between the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the cationic network of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMACl). From small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the complexes between PDADMACI and SDS were shown to exhibit a hexagonal type of microstructure which is different from that of pure SDS. A d spacing of 3.7 nm corresponding to the interdistance between SDS aggregates in the gel network was obtained. The intensity of the diffraction peaks and the degree of order increased with increasing initial SDS concentration and charge content of the PDADMACl gels. The diffractionmore » peaks were broadened when the concentration of SDS in the external solution phase was higher than its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The SAXS profiles were unexpectedly independent of the degree of cross-linking of the PDADMACI gels in the range of 0.5-2%. 27 refs., 6 figs.« less
  • Studies of slightly cross-linked polycationic gels interacting with anionic surfactants have been performed by using random copolymers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMACl) and polyacrylamide (PAAm) with varying content of PDADMACl and degree of cross-linking. Gel samples which had been fully swollen in water were placed in aqueous solutions of sodium alkyl sulfates (octyl(SOS), decyl-(SDCS), dodecyl (SDS), tetradecyl (STS), and hexyl (SHS) sulfates). The degree of the sample volume contraction depends on the PDADMACl content. The collapsed gel-surfactant complexes were studied using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering. All studied samples containing PDADMACl exhibited pronounced supramolecular nanostructures. The gel-SDCS complex exhibited a cubic structuremore » with a periodicity (7.75 nm) of approximately 4 times the surfactant molecular length, while the gel-SDS, gel-STS, and gel-SHS complexes showed hexagonal supramolecular ordering with a periodicity of approximately 2 times the surfactant molecular length. The d spacing of the longest periodicity in the complexes was dependent on the PDADMACl content and the surfactant. The d spacing generally increased with decreasing PDADMACl (charge) content and increasing number of carbon atoms in the surfactant alkyl chain. 20 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.« less
  • We present numerical results for the phase-periodic conductance of an Andreev interferometer and predict the existence of a voltage-induced crossover from a zero-phase minimum to a zero-phase maximum. This contrasts with a recent analysis of Stoof and Nazarov and Volkov, Allsopp, and Lambert, which predicts a vanishing amplitude of oscillation at zero temperature and voltage, respectively, and demonstrates that such behavior is nonuniversal. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}