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Title: Ultra-Short Electron Bunch and X-Ray Temporal Diagnostics with an X-Band Transverse Deflector

Abstract

The measurement of ultra-short electron bunches on the femtosecond time scale constitutes a very challenging problem. In X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), generation of sub-ten femtosecond X-ray pulses is possible, and some efforts have been put into both ultra-short electron and X-ray beam diagnostics. Here we propose a single-shot method using a transverse rf deflector (X-band) after the undulator to reconstruct both the electron bunch and X-ray temporal profiles. Simulation studies show that about 1 fs (rms) time resolution may be achievable in the LCLS and is applicable to a wide range of FEL wavelengths and pulse lengths. The jitter, resolution and other related issues will be discussed. The successful operation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), with its capability of generating free-electron laser (FEL) X-ray pulses from a few femtoseconds (fs) up to a few hundred fs, opens up vast opportunities for studying atoms and molecules on this unprecedented ultrashort time scale. However, tremendous challenges remain in the measurement and control of these ultrashort pulses with femtosecond precision, for both the electron beam (e-beam) and the X-ray pulses. For ultrashort e-beam bunch length measurements, a standard method has been established atmore » LCLS using an S-band radio-frequency (rf) deflector, which works like a streak camera for electrons and is capable of resolving bunch lengths as short as {approx} 10 fs rms. However, the e-beam with low charges of 20 pC at LCLS, which is expected to be less than 10 fs in duration, is too short to be measured using this transverse deflector. The measurement of the electron bunch length is helpful in estimating the FEL X-ray pulse duration. However, for a realistic beam, such as that with a Gaussian shape or even a spiky profile, the FEL amplification varies along the bunch due to peak current or emittance variation. This will cause differences between the temporal shape or duration of the electron bunch and the X-ray pulse. Initial experiments at LCLS have revealed that characterization of the X-ray pulse duration on a shot-by-shot basis is critical for the interpretation of the data. However, a reliable x-ray pulse temporal diagnostic tool is not available so far at the LCLS. We propose a novel method in this paper to characterize the FEL X-ray pulse duration and shape. A transverse rf deflector is used in conjunction with an e-beam energy spectrometer, located after the FEL undulator. By measuring the difference in the e-beam longitudinal phase space between FEL-on and FEL-off, we can obtain the time-resolved energy loss and energy spread induced from the FEL radiation, allowing the FEL X-ray temporal shape to be reconstructed.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1032759
Report Number(s):
SLAC-PUB-14575
TRN: US1200552
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Contributed to the 33rd International Free Electron Laser Conference (FEL 2011), 22-26 Aug 2011. Shanghai, China
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ACCURACY; AMPLIFICATION; ATOMS; BEAM BUNCHING; ELECTRON BEAMS; FREE ELECTRON LASERS; LIGHT SOURCES; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; PHASE SPACE; RESOLUTION; SHAPE; SIMULATION; STREAK CAMERAS; TIME RESOLUTION; WAVELENGTHS; WIGGLER MAGNETS; Accelerators,ACCPHY, XFEL

Citation Formats

Ding, Y., Emma, P., Frisch, J., Huang, Z., Loos, H., Krejcik, P., Wang, M-H., /SLAC, Behrens, C., and /DESY. Ultra-Short Electron Bunch and X-Ray Temporal Diagnostics with an X-Band Transverse Deflector. United States: N. p., 2011. Web.
Ding, Y., Emma, P., Frisch, J., Huang, Z., Loos, H., Krejcik, P., Wang, M-H., /SLAC, Behrens, C., & /DESY. Ultra-Short Electron Bunch and X-Ray Temporal Diagnostics with an X-Band Transverse Deflector. United States.
Ding, Y., Emma, P., Frisch, J., Huang, Z., Loos, H., Krejcik, P., Wang, M-H., /SLAC, Behrens, C., and /DESY. Tue . "Ultra-Short Electron Bunch and X-Ray Temporal Diagnostics with an X-Band Transverse Deflector". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1032759.
@article{osti_1032759,
title = {Ultra-Short Electron Bunch and X-Ray Temporal Diagnostics with an X-Band Transverse Deflector},
author = {Ding, Y. and Emma, P. and Frisch, J. and Huang, Z. and Loos, H. and Krejcik, P. and Wang, M-H. and /SLAC and Behrens, C. and /DESY},
abstractNote = {The measurement of ultra-short electron bunches on the femtosecond time scale constitutes a very challenging problem. In X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), generation of sub-ten femtosecond X-ray pulses is possible, and some efforts have been put into both ultra-short electron and X-ray beam diagnostics. Here we propose a single-shot method using a transverse rf deflector (X-band) after the undulator to reconstruct both the electron bunch and X-ray temporal profiles. Simulation studies show that about 1 fs (rms) time resolution may be achievable in the LCLS and is applicable to a wide range of FEL wavelengths and pulse lengths. The jitter, resolution and other related issues will be discussed. The successful operation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), with its capability of generating free-electron laser (FEL) X-ray pulses from a few femtoseconds (fs) up to a few hundred fs, opens up vast opportunities for studying atoms and molecules on this unprecedented ultrashort time scale. However, tremendous challenges remain in the measurement and control of these ultrashort pulses with femtosecond precision, for both the electron beam (e-beam) and the X-ray pulses. For ultrashort e-beam bunch length measurements, a standard method has been established at LCLS using an S-band radio-frequency (rf) deflector, which works like a streak camera for electrons and is capable of resolving bunch lengths as short as {approx} 10 fs rms. However, the e-beam with low charges of 20 pC at LCLS, which is expected to be less than 10 fs in duration, is too short to be measured using this transverse deflector. The measurement of the electron bunch length is helpful in estimating the FEL X-ray pulse duration. However, for a realistic beam, such as that with a Gaussian shape or even a spiky profile, the FEL amplification varies along the bunch due to peak current or emittance variation. This will cause differences between the temporal shape or duration of the electron bunch and the X-ray pulse. Initial experiments at LCLS have revealed that characterization of the X-ray pulse duration on a shot-by-shot basis is critical for the interpretation of the data. However, a reliable x-ray pulse temporal diagnostic tool is not available so far at the LCLS. We propose a novel method in this paper to characterize the FEL X-ray pulse duration and shape. A transverse rf deflector is used in conjunction with an e-beam energy spectrometer, located after the FEL undulator. By measuring the difference in the e-beam longitudinal phase space between FEL-on and FEL-off, we can obtain the time-resolved energy loss and energy spread induced from the FEL radiation, allowing the FEL X-ray temporal shape to be reconstructed.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {12}
}

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