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Title: Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Mechanical Performance of Dies

Abstract

As a net shape process, die casting is intrinsically efficient and improvements in energy efficiency are strongly dependent on design and process improvements that reduce scrap rates so that more of the total consumed energy goes into acceptable, usable castings. A casting that is distorted and fails to meet specified dimensional requirements is typically remelted but this still results in a decrease in process yield, lost productivity, and increased energy consumption. This work focuses on developing, and expanding the use of, computer modeling methods that can be used to improve the dimensional accuracy of die castings and produce die designs and machine/die setups that reduce rejection rates due to dimensional issues. A major factor contributing to the dimensional inaccuracy of the casting is the elastic deformations of the die cavity caused by the thermo mechanical loads the dies are subjected to during normal operation. Although thermal and die cavity filling simulation are widely used in the industry, structural modeling of the die, particularly for managing part distortion, is not yet widely practiced. This may be due in part to the need to have a thorough understanding of the physical phenomenon involved in die distortion and the mathematical theory employed inmore » the numerical models to efficiently model the die distortion phenomenon. Therefore, two of the goals of this work are to assist in efforts to expand the use of structural modeling and related technologies in the die casting industry by 1) providing a detailed modeling guideline and tutorial for those interested in developing the necessary skills and capability and 2) by developing simple meta-models that capture the results and experience gained from several years of die distortion research and can be used to predict key distortion phenomena of relevance to a die caster with a minimum of background and without the need for simulations. These objectives were met. A detailed modeling tutorial was provided to NADCA for distribution to the industry. Power law based meta-models for predicting machine tie bar loading and for predicting maximum parting surface separation were successfully developed and tested against simulation results for a wide range of machines and experimental data. The models proved to be remarkably accurate, certainly well within the requirements for practical application. In addition to making die structural modeling more accessible, the work advanced the state-of-the-art by developing improved modeling of cavity pressure effects, which is typically modeled as a hydrostatic boundary condition, and performing a systematic analysis of the influence of ejector die design variables on die deflection and parting plane separation. This cavity pressure modeling objective met with less than complete success due to the limits of current finite element based fluid structure interaction analysis methods, but an improved representation of the casting/die interface was accomplished using a combination of solid and shell elements in the finite element model. This approximation enabled good prediction of final part distortion verified with a comprehensive evaluation of the dimensions of test castings produced with a design experiment. An extra deliverable of the experimental work was development of high temperature mechanical properties for the A380 die casting alloy. The ejector side design objective was met and the results were incorporated into the metamodels described above. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 2.03 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates over a ten year period, based on commercial introduction in 2009, a market penetration of 70% by 2014 is 4.26 trillion BTU's/year by 2019. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.085 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Advanced Technology institute
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Office of Technology Development (EE-20)
OSTI Identifier:
1025587
Report Number(s):
NA
TRN: US201120%%782
DOE Contract Number:  
FC36-04GO14230
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; APPROXIMATIONS; BOUNDARY CONDITIONS; CARBON; CASTING; CASTINGS; COMPUTERS; DIMENSIONS; ENERGY CONSUMPTION; ENERGY EFFICIENCY; HYDROSTATICS; MARKET; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; MELTING; METRICS; PRESSURE DEPENDENCE; PRODUCTIVITY; SCRAP; SHAPE; SIMULATION; Die Casting; Dies

Citation Formats

R. Allen Miller, Principal Investigator, Kabiri-Bamoradian, Contributors: Khalil, Delgado-Garza, Abelardo, Murugesan, Karthik, and Ragab, Adham. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Mechanical Performance of Dies. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.2172/1025587.
R. Allen Miller, Principal Investigator, Kabiri-Bamoradian, Contributors: Khalil, Delgado-Garza, Abelardo, Murugesan, Karthik, & Ragab, Adham. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Mechanical Performance of Dies. United States. doi:10.2172/1025587.
R. Allen Miller, Principal Investigator, Kabiri-Bamoradian, Contributors: Khalil, Delgado-Garza, Abelardo, Murugesan, Karthik, and Ragab, Adham. Tue . "Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Mechanical Performance of Dies". United States. doi:10.2172/1025587. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1025587.
@article{osti_1025587,
title = {Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Mechanical Performance of Dies},
author = {R. Allen Miller, Principal Investigator and Kabiri-Bamoradian, Contributors: Khalil and Delgado-Garza, Abelardo and Murugesan, Karthik and Ragab, Adham},
abstractNote = {As a net shape process, die casting is intrinsically efficient and improvements in energy efficiency are strongly dependent on design and process improvements that reduce scrap rates so that more of the total consumed energy goes into acceptable, usable castings. A casting that is distorted and fails to meet specified dimensional requirements is typically remelted but this still results in a decrease in process yield, lost productivity, and increased energy consumption. This work focuses on developing, and expanding the use of, computer modeling methods that can be used to improve the dimensional accuracy of die castings and produce die designs and machine/die setups that reduce rejection rates due to dimensional issues. A major factor contributing to the dimensional inaccuracy of the casting is the elastic deformations of the die cavity caused by the thermo mechanical loads the dies are subjected to during normal operation. Although thermal and die cavity filling simulation are widely used in the industry, structural modeling of the die, particularly for managing part distortion, is not yet widely practiced. This may be due in part to the need to have a thorough understanding of the physical phenomenon involved in die distortion and the mathematical theory employed in the numerical models to efficiently model the die distortion phenomenon. Therefore, two of the goals of this work are to assist in efforts to expand the use of structural modeling and related technologies in the die casting industry by 1) providing a detailed modeling guideline and tutorial for those interested in developing the necessary skills and capability and 2) by developing simple meta-models that capture the results and experience gained from several years of die distortion research and can be used to predict key distortion phenomena of relevance to a die caster with a minimum of background and without the need for simulations. These objectives were met. A detailed modeling tutorial was provided to NADCA for distribution to the industry. Power law based meta-models for predicting machine tie bar loading and for predicting maximum parting surface separation were successfully developed and tested against simulation results for a wide range of machines and experimental data. The models proved to be remarkably accurate, certainly well within the requirements for practical application. In addition to making die structural modeling more accessible, the work advanced the state-of-the-art by developing improved modeling of cavity pressure effects, which is typically modeled as a hydrostatic boundary condition, and performing a systematic analysis of the influence of ejector die design variables on die deflection and parting plane separation. This cavity pressure modeling objective met with less than complete success due to the limits of current finite element based fluid structure interaction analysis methods, but an improved representation of the casting/die interface was accomplished using a combination of solid and shell elements in the finite element model. This approximation enabled good prediction of final part distortion verified with a comprehensive evaluation of the dimensions of test castings produced with a design experiment. An extra deliverable of the experimental work was development of high temperature mechanical properties for the A380 die casting alloy. The ejector side design objective was met and the results were incorporated into the metamodels described above. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 2.03 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates over a ten year period, based on commercial introduction in 2009, a market penetration of 70% by 2014 is 4.26 trillion BTU's/year by 2019. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.085 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).},
doi = {10.2172/1025587},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {9}
}