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Title: Optimal x-ray energy for digital mammography

Abstract

Screening mammography is a radiological procedure requiring the highest possible image quality at the lowest possible dose. It is widely recognized that digital image acquisition, computer assisted diagnosis, and scientific visualization can provide substantial improvement in mammography. For such systems, much of what is accepted as best practice with today`s film/screen/lightbox systems will become inappropriate. A complete system design is required. We have constructed a model of the breast imaging process. These results show that molybdenum-anode, molybdenum-filtered x-ray spectra are ill-suited for digital mammography. An x-ray spectrum rich in 22-to 25-keV photons is needed.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10171763
Report Number(s):
UCRL-ID-112194
ON: DE93017100
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Nov 1992
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; MAMMARY GLANDS; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; RADIATION DOSES; OPTIMIZATION; DIGITAL SYSTEMS; IMAGE PROCESSING; SENSITIVITY; 550602; EXTERNAL RADIATION IN DIAGNOSTICS

Citation Formats

Logan, C.M., Hernandez, J.M., Kinney, J.H., and Lewis, D.L. Optimal x-ray energy for digital mammography. United States: N. p., 1992. Web. doi:10.2172/10171763.
Logan, C.M., Hernandez, J.M., Kinney, J.H., & Lewis, D.L. Optimal x-ray energy for digital mammography. United States. doi:10.2172/10171763.
Logan, C.M., Hernandez, J.M., Kinney, J.H., and Lewis, D.L. Sun . "Optimal x-ray energy for digital mammography". United States. doi:10.2172/10171763. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10171763.
@article{osti_10171763,
title = {Optimal x-ray energy for digital mammography},
author = {Logan, C.M. and Hernandez, J.M. and Kinney, J.H. and Lewis, D.L.},
abstractNote = {Screening mammography is a radiological procedure requiring the highest possible image quality at the lowest possible dose. It is widely recognized that digital image acquisition, computer assisted diagnosis, and scientific visualization can provide substantial improvement in mammography. For such systems, much of what is accepted as best practice with today`s film/screen/lightbox systems will become inappropriate. A complete system design is required. We have constructed a model of the breast imaging process. These results show that molybdenum-anode, molybdenum-filtered x-ray spectra are ill-suited for digital mammography. An x-ray spectrum rich in 22-to 25-keV photons is needed.},
doi = {10.2172/10171763},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 1992},
month = {Sun Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 1992}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The purpose of this statement of work is for third party collaborators to train, validate and have Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) evaluate algorithms to detect liquid threats in digital radiography (DR)/TIP Ready X-ray (TRX) images that will be provided by LLNS through the Transportation and Security Administration (TSA). LLNS will provide a set of images with threat(s) to determine detection rates and non-threat images from airports to determine false alarm rates. A key including a bounding box showing the locations of the threats and non-threats will be provided for the images. It is expected that the Subcontractor shallmore » use half of the images with their keys for training the algorithms and the other half shall be used for validation (third party evaluation) purposes. The Subcontractor shall not use the key to the second half of the data other than for the validation and reporting of the performance of its algorithm (not for training). The Subcontractor has 45 business days from the receipt of datasets and the Subcontract to: (1) Run their detection/classification algorithms on the data; (2) Deliver a final report describing their performance by generating Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves using their algorithm; and (3) Deliver a copy of the third party's executable software (already trained and validated by the datasets) to LLNL accompanied by a user manual. LLNS will evaluate the performance of the same algorithm on another separate set of data. LLNS evaluation of the Subcontractor's algorithm will be documented in a final report within 30 days of receiving the executable code. This report will be sent to TSA and the report may be disseminated to the Subcontract at TSA's discretion.« less
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  • This project was designed to study the effectiveness of industrial computed tomography (CT) and digital radiography (DR) as inspection techniques for the evaluation of materials and structural components manufactured on-line. The results indicate that computed tomography is an appropriate technique if speed and cost are not critical considerations. Digital radiography is the faster technique, but provides less information about the material. Limited view tomography (LVT), which is a simplified form of computed tomography, was compared and found to provide a good compromise between computed tomography and digital radiography when a priori knowledge of material structure is available. For some materialmore » configurations, it provides virtually complete computed tomography data in a fraction of the time required for full view computed tomography data collection and reconstruction. It offers the greatest potential for the productive cross-sectional characterization of composite materials. X-ray inspection; Radiography; Material evaluation; Discrete element detectors; Computed tomography; Tomography; Digital radiography; Composite materials; Epoxy glass material; Glass cloth with polyester matrix; Kelvar cloth polyvinylbutyral matrix.« less
  • Theoretical and experimental techniques have been used to study optimal x-ray for screen-film mammography. A simple model of mammographic imaging predicts optimum x-ray energies which are significantly higher than the K-characteristic energies of Mo. A subjective comparison of x-ray spectra from Mo-anode and W-anode tubes indicates that spectra produced by a W-anode tube filtered with materials of atomic number just above that of Mo are more suitable for screen-film mammography than spectra produced by the Mo-anode/Mo-filter system. The imaging performance of K-edge filtered, W-anode tube spectra was compared to the performance of Mo-anode spectra using phantom measurements and mastectomy specimenmore » radiography. It was shown that optimal W-anode spectra can produce equal contrast with an exposure reduction of a factor of two to three, a dose reduction of a factor of two, and equal or reducing tube loading, compared to Mo-anode spectra. A computer simulation was carried out to extend the initial, monoenergetic theory to the case of real, polychromatic sources. The effects of varying filter material and thickness, tube operating potential, and breast thickness were all studied. Since W-anode x-ray tubes are considered to be better for Xerox mammography than Mo-anode tubes, this study has shown that both Xerox and screen-film techniques can be performed optimally with a single, properly designed, W-anode x-ray tube.« less
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