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Title: Achieving low backgrounds in a variety of situations

Abstract

To be sufficiently interesting, a physics experiment must measure a process that is relatively rare. The process may be rare due to small cross sections, low detector mass, or low detector efficiency. In any case, the process of interest must compete with processes in the detector`s environment that are much more prolific. Although these processes may have been of interest last year, they serve only to hide signals of interest today. The most common method of background reduction is to construct a lead shield around the detector. A less common technique is to reconstruct a detector apparatus with materials with a lower specific activity. The effects of cosmic rays are also frequently reduced by using an active veto system or relocating underground. However, the judicious use of these and other techniques requires some knowledge of the vulnerability of the detector and the relative sizes of potential backgrounds. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory-University of South Carolina (PNL-USC) double beta-decay collaboration and more recently the International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) collaboration have accrued a great deal of experience with semiconductor detectors operated above ground, in shallow below-ground locations (36 m), and in several deep underground locations. The effect of low-background materials, coincidence techniques, cosmicmore » neutrons, and ubiquitous uranium and thorium decay products will be discussed as a function of depth and specifically for above-ground experiments.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
  2. South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10168243
Report Number(s):
PNL-SA-24509; CONF-940494-1
ON: DE94015208
DOE Contract Number:
AC06-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: International workshop on superconductivity and particle detection,Toledo (Spain),20-24 Apr 1994; Other Information: PBD: Apr 1994
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; RADIATION DETECTORS; BACKGROUND NOISE; GERMANIUM 76; DOUBLE BETA DECAY; GE SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS; 440103; NUCLEAR SPECTROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTATION

Citation Formats

Miley, H.S., Brodzinski, R.L., Reeves, J.H., and Avignone, F.T. Achieving low backgrounds in a variety of situations. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
Miley, H.S., Brodzinski, R.L., Reeves, J.H., & Avignone, F.T. Achieving low backgrounds in a variety of situations. United States.
Miley, H.S., Brodzinski, R.L., Reeves, J.H., and Avignone, F.T. 1994. "Achieving low backgrounds in a variety of situations". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10168243.
@article{osti_10168243,
title = {Achieving low backgrounds in a variety of situations},
author = {Miley, H.S. and Brodzinski, R.L. and Reeves, J.H. and Avignone, F.T.},
abstractNote = {To be sufficiently interesting, a physics experiment must measure a process that is relatively rare. The process may be rare due to small cross sections, low detector mass, or low detector efficiency. In any case, the process of interest must compete with processes in the detector`s environment that are much more prolific. Although these processes may have been of interest last year, they serve only to hide signals of interest today. The most common method of background reduction is to construct a lead shield around the detector. A less common technique is to reconstruct a detector apparatus with materials with a lower specific activity. The effects of cosmic rays are also frequently reduced by using an active veto system or relocating underground. However, the judicious use of these and other techniques requires some knowledge of the vulnerability of the detector and the relative sizes of potential backgrounds. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory-University of South Carolina (PNL-USC) double beta-decay collaboration and more recently the International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) collaboration have accrued a great deal of experience with semiconductor detectors operated above ground, in shallow below-ground locations (36 m), and in several deep underground locations. The effect of low-background materials, coincidence techniques, cosmic neutrons, and ubiquitous uranium and thorium decay products will be discussed as a function of depth and specifically for above-ground experiments.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1994,
month = 4
}

Conference:
Other availability
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