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Title: High-speed digitization readout of silicon photomultipliers for time of flight positron emission tomography

Abstract

We report on work to develop a system with about 100 picoseconds (ps) time resolution for time of flight positron emission tomography [TOF-PET]. The chosen photo detectors for the study were Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM's). This study was based on extensive experience in studying timing properties of SiPM's. The readout of these devices used the commercial high speed digitizer DRS4. We applied different algorithms to get the best time resolution of 155 ps Guassian (sigma) for a LYSO crystal coupled to a SiPM. We consider the work as a first step in building a prototype TOF-PET module. The field of positron-emission-tomography (PET) has been rapidly developing. But there are significant limitations in how well current PET scanners can reconstruct images, related to how fast data can be acquired, how much volume they can image, and the spatial and temporal resolution of the generated photons. Typical modern scanners now include multiple rings of detectors, which can image a large volume of the patient. In this type of scanner, one can treat each ring as a separate detector and require coincidences only within the ring, or treat the entire region viewed by the scanner as a single 3 dimensional volume. This 3d techniquemore » has significantly better sensitivity since more photon pair trajectories are accepted. However, the scattering of photons within the volume of the patient, and the effect of random coincidences limits the technique. The advent of sub-nanosecond timing resolution detectors means that there is potentially much better rejection of scattered photon events and random coincidence events in the 3D technique. In addition, if the timing is good enough, then the origin of photons pairs can be determined better, resulting in improved spatial resolution - so called 'Time-of-Flight' PET, or TOF-PET. Currently a lot of activity has occurred in applications of SiPMs for TOF-PET. This is due to the devices very good time resolution, low profile, lack of high voltage needed, and their non-sensitivity to magnetic fields. While investigations into this technique have begun elsewhere, we feel that the extensive SiPM characterization and data acquisition expertise of Fermilab, and the historical in-depth research of PET imaging at University of Chicago will combine to make significant strides in this field. We also benefit by a working relationship with the SiPM producer STMicroelectronics (STM).« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1012683
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-TM-2487-PPD
TRN: US1102401
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; ALGORITHMS; DATA ACQUISITION; DIGITIZERS; FERMILAB; MAGNETIC FIELDS; ORIGIN; PHOTOMULTIPLIERS; PHOTONS; POSITRONS; RESOLUTION; SCATTERING; SENSITIVITY; SILICON; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; TIME RESOLUTION; TIMING PROPERTIES; TOMOGRAPHY; TRAJECTORIES; VELOCITY; Instrumentation

Citation Formats

Ronzhin, A., Los, S., Martens, M., Ramberg, E., /Fermilab, Kim, H., Chen, C., Kao, C., /Chicago U., Niessen, K., /SUNY, Buffalo, Zatserklyaniy, A., /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez, Mazzillo, M., Carbone, B., and /SGS Thomson, Catania. High-speed digitization readout of silicon photomultipliers for time of flight positron emission tomography. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.2172/1012683.
Ronzhin, A., Los, S., Martens, M., Ramberg, E., /Fermilab, Kim, H., Chen, C., Kao, C., /Chicago U., Niessen, K., /SUNY, Buffalo, Zatserklyaniy, A., /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez, Mazzillo, M., Carbone, B., & /SGS Thomson, Catania. High-speed digitization readout of silicon photomultipliers for time of flight positron emission tomography. United States. doi:10.2172/1012683.
Ronzhin, A., Los, S., Martens, M., Ramberg, E., /Fermilab, Kim, H., Chen, C., Kao, C., /Chicago U., Niessen, K., /SUNY, Buffalo, Zatserklyaniy, A., /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez, Mazzillo, M., Carbone, B., and /SGS Thomson, Catania. Tue . "High-speed digitization readout of silicon photomultipliers for time of flight positron emission tomography". United States. doi:10.2172/1012683. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1012683.
@article{osti_1012683,
title = {High-speed digitization readout of silicon photomultipliers for time of flight positron emission tomography},
author = {Ronzhin, A. and Los, S. and Martens, M. and Ramberg, E. and /Fermilab and Kim, H. and Chen, C. and Kao, C. and /Chicago U. and Niessen, K. and /SUNY, Buffalo and Zatserklyaniy, A. and /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez and Mazzillo, M. and Carbone, B. and /SGS Thomson, Catania},
abstractNote = {We report on work to develop a system with about 100 picoseconds (ps) time resolution for time of flight positron emission tomography [TOF-PET]. The chosen photo detectors for the study were Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM's). This study was based on extensive experience in studying timing properties of SiPM's. The readout of these devices used the commercial high speed digitizer DRS4. We applied different algorithms to get the best time resolution of 155 ps Guassian (sigma) for a LYSO crystal coupled to a SiPM. We consider the work as a first step in building a prototype TOF-PET module. The field of positron-emission-tomography (PET) has been rapidly developing. But there are significant limitations in how well current PET scanners can reconstruct images, related to how fast data can be acquired, how much volume they can image, and the spatial and temporal resolution of the generated photons. Typical modern scanners now include multiple rings of detectors, which can image a large volume of the patient. In this type of scanner, one can treat each ring as a separate detector and require coincidences only within the ring, or treat the entire region viewed by the scanner as a single 3 dimensional volume. This 3d technique has significantly better sensitivity since more photon pair trajectories are accepted. However, the scattering of photons within the volume of the patient, and the effect of random coincidences limits the technique. The advent of sub-nanosecond timing resolution detectors means that there is potentially much better rejection of scattered photon events and random coincidence events in the 3D technique. In addition, if the timing is good enough, then the origin of photons pairs can be determined better, resulting in improved spatial resolution - so called 'Time-of-Flight' PET, or TOF-PET. Currently a lot of activity has occurred in applications of SiPMs for TOF-PET. This is due to the devices very good time resolution, low profile, lack of high voltage needed, and their non-sensitivity to magnetic fields. While investigations into this technique have begun elsewhere, we feel that the extensive SiPM characterization and data acquisition expertise of Fermilab, and the historical in-depth research of PET imaging at University of Chicago will combine to make significant strides in this field. We also benefit by a working relationship with the SiPM producer STMicroelectronics (STM).},
doi = {10.2172/1012683},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {2}
}

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