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Title: Particle detection in superfluid helium

Abstract

In this thesis, results are presented for a prototype solar neutrino detector which uses superfluid helium as a target. The prototype consists of a 3 liter helium target maintained at 40 mK by a dilution refrigerator, and a low mass calorimeter suspended above the liquid surface. An {sup 241}Am film immersed in the helium provides 5.5 MeV {alpha} particles which are detected in the experiment. In the detection process, the {alpha} particle deposits a fraction of its energy in rotons and phonons which travel ballistically in the liquid at low temperatures. The excitations which reach the free surface have a finite probability of evaporating helium atoms from the surface and the evaporation signal is detected by the calorimeter mounted above the liquid. The experimental results show that the {alpha} particle deposits a substantial fraction of its energy in the liquid producing predominantly rotons with momentum near the roton minimum of the dispersion curve (1.91 {angstrom}{sup {minus}1}). In addition, the evaporation signal produced by the rotons has been observed and is shown to be peaked directly above the {alpha} source in the detector. The results also indicate that the magnitude of the evaporation signal depends on both the energy and themore » initial direction of the {alpha} particle stopped in the helium target. Finally, these results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and the implications for a full scale detector are discussed.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Dept. of Physics
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10122407
Report Number(s):
DOE/ER/40452-10
ON: DE94006547; BR: KB0401000; TRN: AHC29404%%76
DOE Contract Number:  
FG02-88ER40452
Resource Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Resource Relation:
Other Information: TH: Thesis (Ph.D.); PBD: May 1994
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; SOLAR NEUTRINOS; NEUTRINO DETECTION; RADIATION DETECTORS; DESIGN; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; ALPHA PARTICLES; HELIUM 4; HELIUM DILUTION REFRIGERATORS; ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT; CALIBRATION; 440104; HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS INSTRUMENTATION

Citation Formats

Porter, F S. Particle detection in superfluid helium. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
Porter, F S. Particle detection in superfluid helium. United States.
Porter, F S. Sun . "Particle detection in superfluid helium". United States.
@article{osti_10122407,
title = {Particle detection in superfluid helium},
author = {Porter, F S},
abstractNote = {In this thesis, results are presented for a prototype solar neutrino detector which uses superfluid helium as a target. The prototype consists of a 3 liter helium target maintained at 40 mK by a dilution refrigerator, and a low mass calorimeter suspended above the liquid surface. An {sup 241}Am film immersed in the helium provides 5.5 MeV {alpha} particles which are detected in the experiment. In the detection process, the {alpha} particle deposits a fraction of its energy in rotons and phonons which travel ballistically in the liquid at low temperatures. The excitations which reach the free surface have a finite probability of evaporating helium atoms from the surface and the evaporation signal is detected by the calorimeter mounted above the liquid. The experimental results show that the {alpha} particle deposits a substantial fraction of its energy in the liquid producing predominantly rotons with momentum near the roton minimum of the dispersion curve (1.91 {angstrom}{sup {minus}1}). In addition, the evaporation signal produced by the rotons has been observed and is shown to be peaked directly above the {alpha} source in the detector. The results also indicate that the magnitude of the evaporation signal depends on both the energy and the initial direction of the {alpha} particle stopped in the helium target. Finally, these results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and the implications for a full scale detector are discussed.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1994},
month = {5}
}

Thesis/Dissertation:
Other availability
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