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Title: Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Storage Technology: Fundamental Research for Optimization of Hydrogen Storage and Utilization

Abstract

Design and development of improved low-cost hydrogen fuel cell catalytic materials and high-capacity hydrogenn storage media are paramount to enabling the hydrogen economy. Presently, effective and durable catalysts are mostly precious metals in pure or alloyed form and their high cost inhibits fuel cell applications. Similarly, materials that meet on-board hydrogen storage targets within total mass and volumetric constraints are yet to be found. Both hydrogen storage performance and cost-effective fuel cell designs are intimately linked to the electronic structure, morphology and cost of the chosen materials. The FCAST Project combined theoretical and experimental studies of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and hydrogen adsorption/desorption characteristics of a number of different nanomaterials and metal clusters to develop better fundamental understanding of hydrogen storage in solid state matrices. Additional experimental studies quantified the hydrogen storage properties of synthesized polyaniline(PANI)/Pd composites. Such conducting polymers are especially interesting because of their high intrinsic electron density and the ability to dope the materials with protons, anions, and metal species. Earlier work produced contradictory results: one study reported 7% to 8% hydrogen uptake while a second study reported zero hydrogen uptake. Cost and durability of fuel cell systems are crucial factors in their affordability. Limits on operatingmore » temperature, loss of catalytic reactivity and degradation of proton exchange membranes are factors that affect system durability and contribute to operational costs. More cost effective fuel cell components were sought through studies of the physical and chemical nature of catalyst performance, characterization of oxidation and reduction processes on system surfaces. Additional development effort resulted in a new hydrocarbon-based high-performance sulfonated proton exchange membrane (PEM) that can be manufactured at low cost and accompanied by improved mechanical and thermal stability.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
UNLV Research Foundation, 8311 W. Sunset Road, Suite 200, Las Vegas, NV 89130
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program (EE-2H)
OSTI Identifier:
1010298
Report Number(s):
DOE/GO85028/F
GO85028; TRN: US201116%%744
DOE Contract Number:
FG36-05GO85028
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; ANIONS; BONDING; CATALYSTS; DESIGN; ELECTRON DENSITY; ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE; FUEL CELLS; HYDROGEN; HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS; HYDROGEN STORAGE; MATRICES; MEMBRANES; MORPHOLOGY; OPTIMIZATION; OXIDATION; POLYMERS; PROTONS; STABILITY; STORAGE; TARGETS; nanomaterial; nanotubes, PEM, PANI; x-ray emission specroscopy; hydrogen storage; Pd(iv); Pd(ii); DFT; polymeric; GO85028

Citation Formats

Perret, Bob, Heske, Clemens, Nadavalath, Balakrishnan, Cornelius, Andrew, Hatchett, David, Bae, Chusung, Pang, Tao, Kim, Eunja, and Hemmers, Oliver. Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Storage Technology: Fundamental Research for Optimization of Hydrogen Storage and Utilization. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.2172/1010298.
Perret, Bob, Heske, Clemens, Nadavalath, Balakrishnan, Cornelius, Andrew, Hatchett, David, Bae, Chusung, Pang, Tao, Kim, Eunja, & Hemmers, Oliver. Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Storage Technology: Fundamental Research for Optimization of Hydrogen Storage and Utilization. United States. doi:10.2172/1010298.
Perret, Bob, Heske, Clemens, Nadavalath, Balakrishnan, Cornelius, Andrew, Hatchett, David, Bae, Chusung, Pang, Tao, Kim, Eunja, and Hemmers, Oliver. 2011. "Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Storage Technology: Fundamental Research for Optimization of Hydrogen Storage and Utilization". United States. doi:10.2172/1010298. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1010298.
@article{osti_1010298,
title = {Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Storage Technology: Fundamental Research for Optimization of Hydrogen Storage and Utilization},
author = {Perret, Bob and Heske, Clemens and Nadavalath, Balakrishnan and Cornelius, Andrew and Hatchett, David and Bae, Chusung and Pang, Tao and Kim, Eunja and Hemmers, Oliver},
abstractNote = {Design and development of improved low-cost hydrogen fuel cell catalytic materials and high-capacity hydrogenn storage media are paramount to enabling the hydrogen economy. Presently, effective and durable catalysts are mostly precious metals in pure or alloyed form and their high cost inhibits fuel cell applications. Similarly, materials that meet on-board hydrogen storage targets within total mass and volumetric constraints are yet to be found. Both hydrogen storage performance and cost-effective fuel cell designs are intimately linked to the electronic structure, morphology and cost of the chosen materials. The FCAST Project combined theoretical and experimental studies of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and hydrogen adsorption/desorption characteristics of a number of different nanomaterials and metal clusters to develop better fundamental understanding of hydrogen storage in solid state matrices. Additional experimental studies quantified the hydrogen storage properties of synthesized polyaniline(PANI)/Pd composites. Such conducting polymers are especially interesting because of their high intrinsic electron density and the ability to dope the materials with protons, anions, and metal species. Earlier work produced contradictory results: one study reported 7% to 8% hydrogen uptake while a second study reported zero hydrogen uptake. Cost and durability of fuel cell systems are crucial factors in their affordability. Limits on operating temperature, loss of catalytic reactivity and degradation of proton exchange membranes are factors that affect system durability and contribute to operational costs. More cost effective fuel cell components were sought through studies of the physical and chemical nature of catalyst performance, characterization of oxidation and reduction processes on system surfaces. Additional development effort resulted in a new hydrocarbon-based high-performance sulfonated proton exchange membrane (PEM) that can be manufactured at low cost and accompanied by improved mechanical and thermal stability.},
doi = {10.2172/1010298},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2011,
month = 3
}

Technical Report:

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  • During Phase 1 of this program, the authors evaluated all known hydrogen storage technologies (including those that are now practiced and those that are development) in the context of fuel cell vehicles. They determined that among the development technologies, carbon sorbents could most benefit from closer scrutiny. During Phase 2 of this program, they tested ten different carbon sorbents at various practical temperatures and pressures, and developed the concept of the usable Capacity Ratio, which is the ratio of the mass of hydrogen that can be released from a carbon-filled tank to the mass of hydrogen that can be releasedmore » from an empty tank. The authors also commissioned the design, fabrication, and NGV2 (Natural Gas Vehicle) testing of an aluminum-lined, carbon-composite, full-wrapped pressure vessel to store hydrogen at 78 K and 3,000 psi. They constructed a facility to pressure cycle the tank at 78 K and to temperature cycle the tank at 3,000 psi, tested one such tank, and submitted it for a burst test. Finally, they devised a means by which cryogenic compressed hydrogen gas tanks can be filled and discharged using standard hardware--that is, without using filters, valves, or pressure regulators that must operate at both low temperature and high pressure. This report describes test methods and test results of carbon sorbents and the design of tanks for cold storage. 7 refs., 91 figs., 10 tabs.« less
  • This report documents a portion of the work performed Multi-fuel Reformers for Fuel Cells Used in Transportation. One objective for development is to develop advanced fuel processing systems to reform methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and other hydrocarbons into hydrogen for use in transportation fuel cell systems, while a second objective is to develop better systems for on-board hydrogen storage. This report examines techniques and technology available for storage of pure hydrogen on board a vehicle as pure hydrogen of hydrides. The report focuses separately on near- and far-term technologies, with particular emphasis on the former. Development of lighter, more compactmore » near-term storage systems is recommended to enhance competitiveness and simplify fuel cell design. The far-term storage technologies require substantial applied research in order to become serious contenders.« less
  • PNNL’s objective in this report is to provide DOE with a technology and manufacturing readiness assessment to identify hydrogen storage technologies’ maturity levels for early market motive and non-motive applications and to provide a path forward toward commercialization. PNNL’s Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is based on a combination of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) designations that enable evaluation of hydrogen storage technologies in varying levels of development. This approach provides a logical methodology and roadmap to enable the identification of hydrogen storage technologies, their advantages/disadvantages, gaps and R&D needs on an unbiased and transparent scale thatmore » is easily communicated to interagency partners. The TRA report documents the process used to conduct the TRA, reports the TRL and MRL for each assessed technology and provides recommendations based on the findings.« less