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Title: Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

Abstract

There is a need to reduce air pollutant emissions in some U.S. urban regions to meet federal and state air quality guidelines. Opportunities exist for reducing pollutant emissions from natural gas appliances in the residential sector. A cost-benefit analysis on various pollutant-reducing strategies is needed to evaluate these opportunities. The effectiveness of these pollutant-reducing strategies (e.g., low-emission burners, energy conservation) can then be ranked among themselves and compared with other pollutant-reducing strategies available for the region. A key step towards conducting a cost-benefit analysis is to collect information on pollutant emissions from existing residential natural gas appliances. An extensive literature search was conducted to collect data on residential natural-gas-appliance pollutant emission factors. The literature primarily describes laboratory tests and may not reflect actual emission factor distributions in the field. Pollutant emission factors for appliances operated at over 700 test conditions are summarized for nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter, formaldehyde, and methane. The appliances for which pollutant emissions are summarized include forced-air furnaces; stand-alone space heaters (vented and unvented); water heaters; cooking range burners, ovens, and broilers; and pilot lights. The arithmetic means of the nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter emission factor distributions agree well with the Environmentalmore » Protection Agency published emission factor values for domestic gas appliances (in report AP-42). However, the carbon monoxide and methane distribution means are much higher than the relevant AP-42 values. Formaldehyde emission factors are not addressed in AP-42, but the emission factor mean for formaldehyde is comparable to the AP-42 emission factor value for total hydrocarbon emissions.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Environmental Energy Technologies Division
OSTI Identifier:
1008317
Report Number(s):
LBL-38123
TRN: US201106%%397
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Air&Waste Management Association
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Air&Waste Management Association
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54; 99; AIR QUALITY; APPLIANCES; BURNERS; CARBON MONOXIDE; ENERGY CONSERVATION; FORMALDEHYDE; FURNACES; GAS APPLIANCES; HYDROCARBONS; METHANE; NITROGEN OXIDES; OVENS; PARTICULATES; POLLUTANTS; RESIDENTIAL SECTOR; SPACE HEATERS; US EPA; WATER HEATERS

Citation Formats

Traynor, G.W., Apte, M.G., and Chang, G.-M. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review. United States: N. p., 1996. Web.
Traynor, G.W., Apte, M.G., & Chang, G.-M. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review. United States.
Traynor, G.W., Apte, M.G., and Chang, G.-M. Thu . "Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1008317.
@article{osti_1008317,
title = {Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review},
author = {Traynor, G.W. and Apte, M.G. and Chang, G.-M.},
abstractNote = {There is a need to reduce air pollutant emissions in some U.S. urban regions to meet federal and state air quality guidelines. Opportunities exist for reducing pollutant emissions from natural gas appliances in the residential sector. A cost-benefit analysis on various pollutant-reducing strategies is needed to evaluate these opportunities. The effectiveness of these pollutant-reducing strategies (e.g., low-emission burners, energy conservation) can then be ranked among themselves and compared with other pollutant-reducing strategies available for the region. A key step towards conducting a cost-benefit analysis is to collect information on pollutant emissions from existing residential natural gas appliances. An extensive literature search was conducted to collect data on residential natural-gas-appliance pollutant emission factors. The literature primarily describes laboratory tests and may not reflect actual emission factor distributions in the field. Pollutant emission factors for appliances operated at over 700 test conditions are summarized for nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter, formaldehyde, and methane. The appliances for which pollutant emissions are summarized include forced-air furnaces; stand-alone space heaters (vented and unvented); water heaters; cooking range burners, ovens, and broilers; and pilot lights. The arithmetic means of the nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter emission factor distributions agree well with the Environmental Protection Agency published emission factor values for domestic gas appliances (in report AP-42). However, the carbon monoxide and methane distribution means are much higher than the relevant AP-42 values. Formaldehyde emission factors are not addressed in AP-42, but the emission factor mean for formaldehyde is comparable to the AP-42 emission factor value for total hydrocarbon emissions.},
doi = {},
journal = {Journal of Air&Waste Management Association},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1996},
month = {8}
}