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Title: Low temperature pyrotechnic smokes: A potential low cost alternative to nonpyrotechnic smoke for access delay applications

Abstract

Smokes are frequently used as visual obscurants in access delay applications. A new generation of low temperature pyrotechnic smokes is being developed. Terephthalic Acid (TPA) smoke was developed by the U.S. Army and Sebacic Acid (SA) smoke is being developed by Thiokol Corp. The advantages these smokes offer over traditional pyrotechnic smokes include; low generation temperature (approximately 450{degree}C), lower toxicity, and lower corrosivity. The low generation temperature reduces smoke layering effects and allows the addition of sensory irritants, such as o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS), to the formulation. Some advantages low temperature pyrotechnic smokes offer over nonpyrotechnic smokes include; low cost, simplicity, compactness, light weight, long storage life, and orientation insensitive operation. Low cost permits distribution of multiple units for reduced vulnerability and refill flexibility. Some disadvantages may include the combustibility of the smoke particulate; however, the published lower explosive limit of the mentioned materials is approximately ten times greater than the concentration required for effective obscuration. The TPA smoke cloud contains small quantities of benzene, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide; no benzene or formaldehyde was identified during preliminary SA smoke analyses performed by Thiokol Corp. Sandia performed tests and analyses on TPA smoke to determine the smoke cloud composition, the quantity ofmore » particulate produced per canister, and the relationship between airborne particulate concentration and measured optical density values. Current activities include characterization of SA smoke.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
100415
Report Number(s):
SAND-95-1357C; CONF-950787-67
ON: DE95014848
DOE Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 36. annual meeting of the Institute for Nuclear Materials Management, Palm Desert, CA (United States), 9-12 Jul 1995; Other Information: PBD: [1995]
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; SMOKES; AEROSOL GENERATORS; DESIGN; PYROTECHNIC DEVICES; SEBACIC ACID; SAFEGUARDS; TEREPHTHALIC ACID; VISIBILITY

Citation Formats

Greenholt, C J. Low temperature pyrotechnic smokes: A potential low cost alternative to nonpyrotechnic smoke for access delay applications. United States: N. p., 1995. Web.
Greenholt, C J. Low temperature pyrotechnic smokes: A potential low cost alternative to nonpyrotechnic smoke for access delay applications. United States.
Greenholt, C J. Sat . "Low temperature pyrotechnic smokes: A potential low cost alternative to nonpyrotechnic smoke for access delay applications". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/100415.
@article{osti_100415,
title = {Low temperature pyrotechnic smokes: A potential low cost alternative to nonpyrotechnic smoke for access delay applications},
author = {Greenholt, C J},
abstractNote = {Smokes are frequently used as visual obscurants in access delay applications. A new generation of low temperature pyrotechnic smokes is being developed. Terephthalic Acid (TPA) smoke was developed by the U.S. Army and Sebacic Acid (SA) smoke is being developed by Thiokol Corp. The advantages these smokes offer over traditional pyrotechnic smokes include; low generation temperature (approximately 450{degree}C), lower toxicity, and lower corrosivity. The low generation temperature reduces smoke layering effects and allows the addition of sensory irritants, such as o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS), to the formulation. Some advantages low temperature pyrotechnic smokes offer over nonpyrotechnic smokes include; low cost, simplicity, compactness, light weight, long storage life, and orientation insensitive operation. Low cost permits distribution of multiple units for reduced vulnerability and refill flexibility. Some disadvantages may include the combustibility of the smoke particulate; however, the published lower explosive limit of the mentioned materials is approximately ten times greater than the concentration required for effective obscuration. The TPA smoke cloud contains small quantities of benzene, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide; no benzene or formaldehyde was identified during preliminary SA smoke analyses performed by Thiokol Corp. Sandia performed tests and analyses on TPA smoke to determine the smoke cloud composition, the quantity of particulate produced per canister, and the relationship between airborne particulate concentration and measured optical density values. Current activities include characterization of SA smoke.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/100415}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1995},
month = {7}
}

Conference:
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