Ivar Giaever, Tunneling, and Superconductors
'Dr. Giaever received his engineering degree at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. After college, he emigrated to Canada, where he worked as a mechanical engineer with General Electric, and later transferred to GE's Development Center in Schenectady, N.Y. There, he shifted his interest to physics, and did graduate work at Rensselaer, receiving a Ph.D. in 1964.
From 1958 to 1970, Dr. Giaever worked in the fields of thin films, tunneling, and superconductivity,'1 research that resulted in his receiving the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973. '[I]n 1971, Dr. Giaever began studying the behavior of organic molecules at solid surfaces, and the interaction of cells with surfaces. In 1988, he became an Institute Professor of Science at Rensselaer.' 1
While working at GE Corporate Research and Development, Dr. Giaever and Dr. Charles R. Keese invented ECIS™ (Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing), a technology, which studies, in real time, the activities of cells grown in tissue culture. … In 1991, as the potential applications of the ECIS technology became more apparent, Giaever and Keese formed Applied BioPhysics to develop, commercialize and market ECIS and other biophysical technologies.' 1
Additional information about Ivar Giaever, tunneling, and superconductivity is available in electronic documents and on the Web.
Energy Gap in Superconductors Measured by Electron Tunneling; Physical Review Letters, Vol. 5 Issue 4: 147 - 148; August 15, 1960
Electron Tunneling Between Two Superconductors; Physical Review Letters, Vol. 5 Issue 10: 464 - 466; November 15, 1960
Electron Tunneling and Superconductivity; Review of Modern Physics, Vol. 46 Issue 2: 245 - 250; April 1, 1974
Interview with Ivar Giaever (video)
Ivar Giaever - Science Video Interview: Tunneling in Semiconductors and Superconductors (video)
How Quantum Tunneling Works (video)