Ivar Giaever, Tunneling, and Superconductors

Resources with Additional Information · Patents

Ivar Giaever
Courtesy of Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute

'Dr. Giaever received his engineering degree at the Norwegian Institute of Technology.  After college, he emigrated to Canada, where he worked as a mechanical engineer with General Electric, and later transferred to GE's Development Center in Schenectady, N.Y.  There, he shifted his interest to physics, and did graduate work at Rensselaer, receiving a Ph.D. in 1964.

From 1958 to 1970, Dr. Giaever worked in the fields of thin films, tunneling, and superconductivity,'1 research that resulted in his receiving the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973.  '[I]n 1971, Dr. Giaever began studying the behavior of organic molecules at solid surfaces, and the interaction of cells with surfaces.  In 1988, he became an Institute Professor of Science at Rensselaer.' 1

While working at GE Corporate Research and Development, Dr. Giaever and Dr. Charles R. Keese invented ECIS™ (Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing), a technology, which studies, in real time, the activities of cells grown in tissue culture. … In 1991, as the potential applications of the ECIS technology became more apparent, Giaever and Keese formed Applied BioPhysics to develop, commercialize and market ECIS and other biophysical technologies.' 1

1 Edited excerpt from Nobel Laureate Ivar Giaever PhD '64 …


Resources with Additional Information

Additional information about Ivar Giaever, tunneling, and superconductivity is available in electronic documents and on the Web.


Energy Gap in Superconductors Measured by Electron Tunneling; Physical Review Letters, Vol. 5 Issue 4: 147 - 148; August 15, 1960

Electron Tunneling Between Two Superconductors; Physical Review Letters, Vol. 5 Issue 10: 464 - 466; November 15, 1960

Electron Tunneling and Superconductivity; Review of Modern Physics, Vol. 46 Issue 2: 245 - 250; April 1, 1974


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