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  1. The electronic devices that play a vital role in our daily life are primarily based on silicon and are thus rigid, opaque, and relatively heavy. However, new electronics relying on polymer semiconductors are opening up new application spaces like stretchable and self-healing sensors and devices, and these can facilitate the integration of such devices into our homes, our clothing, and even our bodies. So, while there has been tremendous interest in such technologies, the widespread adoption of these organic electronics requires low-cost manufacturing techniques. Fortunately, the realization of organic electronics can take inspiration from a technology developed since the beginningmore » of the Common Era: printing. Here, this review addresses the critical issues and considerations in the printing methods for organic electronics, outlines the fundamental fluid mechanics, polymer physics, and deposition parameters involved in the fabrication process, and provides future research directions for the next generation of printed polymer electronics.« less
  2. PDFT1032, a new semiconducting polymer possessing a favorable absorption peak (1032 nm) and outstanding biocompatibility, may be widely applicable in clinical imaging and the surgical treatment of malignancy.
  3. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of poly(benzodithiophene-thienopyrrolodione) (BDT-TPD) oligomers in order to evaluate the accuracy with which unoptimized molecular models can predict experimentally characterized morphologies. The predicted morphologies are characterized using simulated grazing-incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) and compared to the experimental scattering patterns. We find that approximating the aromatic rings in BDT-TPD with rigid bodies, rather than combinations of bond, angle, and dihedral constraints, results in 14% lower computational cost and provides nearly equivalent structural predictions compared to the flexible model case. The predicted glass transition temperature of BDT-TPD (410 +/- 32 K) is found to be in agreement withmore » experiments. Predicted morphologies demonstrate short-range structural order due to stacking of the chain backbones (p-p stacking around 3.9 A), and long-range spatial correlations due to the self-organization of backbone stacks into 'ribbons' (lamellar ordering around 20.9 A), representing the best-to-date computational predictions of structure of complex conjugated oligomers. We find that expensive simulated annealing schedules are not needed to predict experimental structures here, with instantaneous quenches providing nearly equivalent predictions at a fraction of the computational cost of annealing. We therefore suggest utilizing rigid bodies and fast cooling schedules for high-throughput screening studies of semiflexible polymers and oligomers to utilize their significant computational benefits where appropriate.« less
  4. Electrolyte compositions for batteries such as lithium ion and lithium air batteries are described. In some embodiments the compositions are liquid compositions comprising (a) a homogeneous solvent system, said solvent system comprising a perfluropolyether (PFPE) and polyethylene oxide (PEO); and (b) an alkali metal salt dissolved in said solvent system. In other embodiments the compositions are solid electrolyte compositions comprising: (a) a solid polymer, said polymer comprising a crosslinked product of a crosslinkable perfluropolyether (PFPE) and a crosslinkable polyethylene oxide (PEO); and (b) an alkali metal ion salt dissolved in said polymer. Batteries containing such compositions as electrolytes are alsomore » described.« less
  5. The effects of deuterium isotope substitution on conjugated polymer chain stacking of poly(3-hexylthiophene) is studied in this paper experimentally by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in combination with gel permeation chromatography and theoretically using density functional theory and quantum molecular dynamics. For four P3HT materials with different levels of deuteration (pristine, main-chain deuterated, side-chain deuterated, and fully deuterated), the XRD measurements show that main-chain thiophene deuteration significantly reduces crystallinity, regardless of the side-chain deuteration. The reduction of crystallinity due to the main-chain deuteration is a quantum nuclear effect resulting from a static zero-point vibrational energy combined with a dynamic correlation of themore » dipole fluctuations. The quantum molecular dynamics simulations confirm the interchain correlation of the proton–proton and deuteron–deuteron motions but not of the proton–deuteron motion. Thus and finally, isotopic purity is an important factor affecting stability and properties of conjugated polymer crystals, which should be considered in the design of electronic and spintronic devices.« less
  6. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of the electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectra of polarons in semiconducting π -conjugated polymers. We show that the contact hyperfine coupling and the dipolar interaction between the polaron and the proton spins give rise to different features in the ESEEM spectra. Our theory enables direct selective probe of different groups of nuclear spins, which affect the polaron spin dynamics. Namely, we demonstrate how the signal from the distant protons (coupled to the polaron spin via dipolar interactions) can be distinguished from the signal coming from the protons residing on the polaron sitemore » (coupled to the polaron spin via contact hyperfine interaction). We propose a method for directly probing the contact hyperfine interaction, that would enable detailed study of the polaron orbital state and its immediate environment. Lastly, we also analyze the decay of the spin echo modulation, and its connection to the polaron transport.« less
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