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  1. Ionizing radiation poses a significant challenge to the operation and reliability of conventional silicon-based devices. In this paper, we report the effects of gamma radiation on graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs), along with a method to mitigate those effects by developing a radiation-hardened version of our back-gated GFETs. We demonstrate that activated atmospheric oxygen from the gamma ray interaction with air damages the semiconductor device, and damage to the substrate contributes additional threshold voltage instability. Our radiation-hardened devices, which have protection against these two effects, exhibit minimal performance degradation, improved stability, and significantly reduced hysteresis after prolonged gamma radiation exposure. Finally,more » we believe this work provides an insight into graphene's interactions with ionizing radiation that could enable future graphene-based electronic devices to be used for space, military, and other radiation-sensitive applications.« less
  2. When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of amore » unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm⁻¹. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 µOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.« less

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