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  1. Orchestrating TRANSP Simulations for Interpretative and Predictive Tokamak Modeling with OMFIT

    TRANSP simulations are being used in the OMFIT work- flow manager to enable a machine independent means of experimental analysis, postdictive validation, and predictive time dependent simulations on the DIII-D, NSTX, JET and C-MOD tokamaks. The procedures for preparing the input data from plasma profile diagnostics and equilibrium reconstruction, as well as processing of the time-dependent heating and current drive sources and assumptions about the neutral recycling, vary across machines, but are streamlined by using a common workflow manager. Settings for TRANSP simulation fidelity are incorporated into the OMFIT framework, contrasting between-shot analysis, power balance, and fast-particle simulations. A previouslymore » established series of data consistency metrics are computed such as comparison of experimental vs. calculated neutron rate, equilibrium stored energy vs. total stored energy from profile and fast-ion pressure, and experimental vs. computed surface loop voltage. Discrepancies between data consistency metrics can indicate errors in input quantities such as electron density profile or Zeff, or indicate anomalous fast-particle transport. Measures to assess the sensitivity of the verification metrics to input quantities are provided by OMFIT, including scans of the input profiles and standardized post-processing visualizations. For predictive simulations, TRANSP uses GLF23 or TGLF to predict core plasma profiles, with user defined boundary conditions in the outer region of the plasma. ITPA validation metrics are provided in post-processing to assess the transport model validity. By using OMFIT to orchestrate the steps for experimental data preparation, selection of operating mode, submission, post-processing and visualization, we have streamlined and standardized the usage of TRANSP.« less
  2. High fusion performance at high T i/ T e in JET-ILW baseline plasmas with high NBI heating power and low gas puffing

    This article presents the transport analysis of high density baseline discharges in the 2016 experimental campaign of the Joint European Torus with the ITER-Like Wall (JET-ILW), where a significant increase in the deuterium–deuterium (D–D) fusion neutron rate (~2.8 × 10 16 s -1) was achieved with stable high neutral beam injection (NBI) powers of up to 28 MW and low gas puffing. Increase in T i exceeding T e were produced for the first time in baseline discharges despite the high electron density; this enabled a significant increase in the thermal fusion reaction rate. As a result, the new achievedmore » record in fusion performance was much higher than the previous record in the same heating power baseline discharges, where T i = T e. In addition to the decreases in collisionality and the increases in ion heating fraction in the discharges with high NBI power, T i > T e can also be attributed to positive feedback between the high T i/T e ratio and stabilisation of the turbulent heat flux resulting from the ion temperature gradient driven mode. The high T i/T e ratio was correlated with high rotation frequency. Among the discharges with identical beam heating power, higher rotation frequencies were observed when particle fuelling was provided by low gas puffing and pellet injection. Lastly, this reveals that particle fuelling played a key role for achieving high T i/T e, and the improved fusion performance.« less
  3. Guest Editorial Modeling and Advanced Control of Wind Turbines/Wind Farms

    The papers in this special section brings together papers focused on the recent advancements and breakthroughs in the technology of modeling and enhanced active/reactive power control of wind power conversion systems, ranging from components of wind turbines to wind farms.
  4. Explaining Cold-Pulse Dynamics in Tokamak Plasmas Using Local Turbulent Transport Models

    A long-standing enigma in plasma transport has been resolved by modeling of cold-pulse experiments conducted on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Controlled edge cooling of fusion plasmas triggers core electron heating on time scales faster than an energy confinement time, which has long been interpreted as strong evidence of nonlocal transport. Here, this Letter shows that the steady-state profiles, the cold-pulse rise time, and disappearance at higher density as measured in these experiments are successfully captured by a recent local quasilinear turbulent transport model, demonstrating that the existence of nonlocal transport phenomena is not necessary for explaining the behavior and timemore » scales of cold-pulse experiments in tokamak plasmas.« less
  5. Upgraded flowing liquid lithium limiter for improving Li coverage uniformity and erosion resistance in EAST device

    In this paper, we report on design and technology improvements for a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter inserted into auxiliary heated discharges in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak device. In order to enhance Li coverage uniformity and erosion resistance, a new liquid Li distributor with homogenous channels was implemented. In addition, two independent electromagnetic pumps and a new horizontal capillary structure contributed to an improvement in the observed Li flow uniformity (from 30% in the previous FLiLi design to >80% in this FLiLi design). To improve limiter surface erosion resistance, hot isostatic press technology was applied, which improved the thermalmore » contact between thin stainless steel protective layers covering the Cu heat sink. The thickness of the stainless steel layer was increased from 0.1 mm to 0.5 mm, which also helped macroscopic erosion resilience. Finally, despite the high auxiliary heating power up to 4.5 MW, no Li bursts were recorded from FLiLi, underscoring the improved performance of this new design.« less
  6. RELATIVISTIC ELECTRONS PRODUCED BY RECONNECTING ELECTRIC FIELDS IN A LASER-DRIVEN BENCH-TOP SOLAR FLARE

    Laboratory experiments have been carried out to model the magnetic reconnection process in a solar flare with powerful lasers. Relativistic electrons with energy up to megaelectronvolts are detected along the magnetic separatrices bounding the reconnection outflow, which exhibit a kappa-like distribution with an effective temperature of ∼10{sup 9} K. The acceleration of non-thermal electrons is found to be more efficient in the case with a guide magnetic field (a component of a magnetic field along the reconnection-induced electric field) than in the case without a guide field. Hardening of the spectrum at energies ≥500 keV is observed in both cases, which remarkably resembles themore » hardening of hard X-ray and γ -ray spectra observed in many solar flares. This supports a recent proposal that the hardening in the hard X-ray and γ -ray emissions of solar flares is due to a hardening of the source-electron spectrum. We also performed numerical simulations that help examine behaviors of electrons in the reconnection process with the electromagnetic field configurations occurring in the experiments. The trajectories of non-thermal electrons observed in the experiments were well duplicated in the simulations. Our numerical simulations generally reproduce the electron energy spectrum as well, except for the hardening of the electron spectrum. This suggests that other mechanisms such as shock or turbulence may play an important role in the production of the observed energetic electrons.« less
  7. Evidence for the two-body charmless baryonic decay $$ {B}^{+}\to p\overline{\varLambda} $$

    A search for the rare two-body charmless baryonic decay B + → pmore » $$-\atop{Λ}$$ is performed with pp collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb -1, collected by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. An excess of B + →p$$-\atop{Λ}$$ candidates with respect to background expectations is seen with a statistical significance of 4.1 standard deviations, and constitutes the first evidence for this decay. The branching fraction, measured using the B + →K S 0 π + decay for normalisation, B(B +→p$$-\atop{Λ}$$=2.4$$+1.0\atop{0.8}$$±0.3 x 10 -7)where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic.« less
  8. Search for massive long-lived particles decaying semileptonically in the LHCb detector

    A search is presented for massive long-lived particles decaying into a muon and two quarks. The dataset consists of proton-proton interactions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1 and 2 fb -1, respectively. The analysis is performed assuming a set of production mechanisms with simple topologies, including the production of a Higgs-like particle decaying into two long-lived particles. The mass range from 20 to 80 GeV/c 2 and lifetimes from 5 to 100ps are explored. Results are also interpreted in terms of neutralino production in different R-Parity violating supersymmetric models, with masses in the 23–198 GeV/cmore » 2 range. No excess above the background expectation is observed and upper limits are set on the production cross-section for various points in the parameter space of theoretical models.« less
  9. Intra-pulse transition between ion acceleration mechanisms in intense laser-foil interactions

    Multiple ion acceleration mechanisms can occur when an ultrathin foil is irradiated with an intense laser pulse, with the dominant mechanism changing over the course of the interaction. Measurement of the spatial-intensity distribution of the beam of energetic protons is used to investigate the transition from radiation pressure acceleration to transparency-driven processes. It is shown numerically that radiation pressure drives an increased expansion of the target ions within the spatial extent of the laser focal spot, which induces a radial deflection of relatively low energy sheath-accelerated protons to form an annular distribution. Through variation of the target foil thickness, themore » opening angle of the ring is shown to be correlated to the point in time transparency occurs during the interaction and is maximized when it occurs at the peak of the laser intensity profile. Corresponding experimental measurements of the ring size variation with target thickness exhibit the same trends and provide insight into the intra-pulse laser-plasma evolution.« less
  10. Fusion Energy Sciences Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Fusion Energy Sciences, January 27-29, 2016, Gaithersburg, Maryland

    The additional computing power offered by the planned exascale facilities could be transformational across the spectrum of plasma and fusion research — provided that the new architectures can be efficiently applied to our problem space. The collaboration that will be required to succeed should be viewed as an opportunity to identify and exploit cross-disciplinary synergies. To assess the opportunities and requirements as part of the development of an overall strategy for computing in the exascale era, the Exascale Requirements Review meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) community was convened January 27–29, 2016, with participation from a broad range ofmore » fusion and plasma scientists, specialists in applied mathematics and computer science, and representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its major computing facilities. This report is a summary of that meeting and the preparatory activities for it and includes a wealth of detail to support the findings. Technical opportunities, requirements, and challenges are detailed in this report (and in the recent report on the Workshop on Integrated Simulation). Science applications are described, along with mathematical and computational enabling technologies. Also see http://exascaleage.org/fes/ for more information.« less
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