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  1. Group- and phase-velocity-mismatch fringes in triple sum-frequency spectroscopy

  2. Frequency-domain coherent multidimensional spectroscopy when dephasing rivals pulsewidth: Disentangling material and instrument response

    Ultrafast spectroscopy is often collected in the mixed frequency/time domain, where pulse durations are similar to system dephasing times. In these experiments, expectations derived from the familiar driven and impulsive limits are not valid. This work simulates the mixed-domain four-wave mixing response of a model system to develop expectations for this more complex field-matter interaction. We also explore frequency and delay axes. We show that these line shapes are exquisitely sensitive to excitation pulse widths and delays. Near pulse overlap, the excitation pulses induce correlations that resemble signatures of dynamic inhomogeneity. We describe these line shapes using an intuitive picturemore » that connects to familiar field-matter expressions. We develop strategies for distinguishing pulse-induced correlations from true system inhomogeneity. Our simulations provide a foundation for interpretation of ultrafast experiments in the mixed domain.« less
    Cited by 2
  3. Quasilinear diffusion coefficients in a finite Larmor radius expansion for ion cyclotron heated plasmas

    In this study, a reduced model of quasilinear velocity diffusion by a small Larmor radius approximation is derived to couple the Maxwell’s equations and the Fokker Planck equation self-consistently for the ion cyclotron range of frequency waves in a tokamak. The reduced model ensures the important properties of the full model by Kennel-Engelmann diffusion, such as diffusion directions, wave polarizations, and H-theorem. The kinetic energy change (Wdot ) is used to derive the reduced model diffusion coefficients for the fundamental damping (n = 1) and the second harmonic damping (n = 2) to the lowest order of the finite Larmormore » radius expansion. The quasilinear diffusion coefficients are implemented in a coupled code (TORIC-CQL3D) with the equivalent reduced model of the dielectric tensor. We also present the simulations of the ITER minority heating scenario, in which the reduced model is verified within the allowable errors from the full model results.« less
  4. Single-Crystal Thin Films of Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskite Epitaxially Grown on Metal Oxide Perovskite (SrTiO 3)

    High-quality metal halide perovskite single crystals have low defect densities and excellent photophysical properties, yet thin films are the most sought after material geometry for optoelectronic devices. Perovskite single-crystal thin films (SCTFs) would be highly desirable for high-performance devices, but their growth remains challenging, particularly for inorganic metal halide perovskites. Herein, we report the facile vapor-phase epitaxial growth of cesium lead bromide perovskite (CsPbBr 3) continuous SCTFs with controllable micrometer thickness, as well as nanoplate arrays, on traditional oxide perovskite SrTiO 3(100) substrates. Heteroepitaxial single-crystal growth is enabled by the serendipitous incommensurate lattice match between these two perovskites, and overcomingmore » the limitation of island-forming Volmer–Weber crystal growth is critical for growing large-area continuous thin films. Time-resolved photoluminescence, transient reflection spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements show that the CsPbBr 3 epitaxial thin film has a slow charge carrier recombination rate, low surface recombination velocity (10 4 cm s –1), and low defect density of 10 12 cm –3, which are comparable to those of CsPbBr 3 single crystals. This work suggests a general approach using oxide perovskites as substrates for heteroepitaxial growth of halide perovskites. Furthermore, the high-quality halide perovskite SCTFs epitaxially integrated with multifunctional oxide perovskites could open up opportunities for a variety of high-performance optoelectronics devices.« less
    Cited by 3
  5. Complex and noncentrosymmetric stacking of layered metal dichalcogenide materials created by screw dislocations

    The interesting and tunable properties of layered metal dichalcogenides heavily depend on their phase and layer stacking. Here, we show and explain how the layer stacking and physical properties of WSe 2 are influenced by screw dislocations. A one-to-one correlation of atomic force microscopy and high- and low-frequency Raman spectroscopy of many dislocated WSe 2 nanoplates reveals variations in the number and shapes of dislocation spirals and different layer stackings that are determined by the number, rotation, and location of the dislocations. Plates with triangular dislocation spirals form noncentrosymmetric stacking that gives rise to strong second-harmonic generation and enhanced photoluminescence,more » plates with hexagonal dislocation spirals form the bulk 2H layer stacking commonly observed, and plates containing mixed dislocation shapes have intermediate noncentrosymmetric stackings with mixed properties. Multiple dislocation cores and other complexities can lead to more complex stackings and properties. Finally, these previously unobserved properties and layer stackings in WSe 2 will be interesting for spintronics and valleytronics.« less
    Cited by 5
  6. Global Analysis of Perovskite Photophysics Reveals Importance of Geminate Pathways

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites demonstrate desirable photophysical behaviors and promising applications from efficient photovoltaics to lasing, but the fundamental nature of excited state species is still under debate. We also collected time-resolved photoluminescence of single-crystal nanoplates of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (MAPbI3), with excitation over a range of fluences and repetition rates, to provide a more complete photophysical picture. A fundamentally different way of simulating the photophysics is developed that relies on unnormalized decays, global analysis over a large array of conditions, and inclusion of steady-state behavior; these details are critical to capturing observed behaviors. These additional constraints require inclusion ofmore » spatially-correlated pairs, along with free carriers and traps, demonstrating the importance of our comprehensive analysis. Modeling geminate and non-geminate pathways shows geminate processes are dominant at high carrier densities and early times. This combination of data and simulation provides a detailed picture of perovskite photophysics across multiple excitation regimes that was not previously available.« less
  7. Fusion Energy Sciences Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Fusion Energy Sciences, January 27-29, 2016, Gaithersburg, Maryland

    The additional computing power offered by the planned exascale facilities could be transformational across the spectrum of plasma and fusion research — provided that the new architectures can be efficiently applied to our problem space. The collaboration that will be required to succeed should be viewed as an opportunity to identify and exploit cross-disciplinary synergies. To assess the opportunities and requirements as part of the development of an overall strategy for computing in the exascale era, the Exascale Requirements Review meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) community was convened January 27–29, 2016, with participation from a broad range ofmore » fusion and plasma scientists, specialists in applied mathematics and computer science, and representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its major computing facilities. This report is a summary of that meeting and the preparatory activities for it and includes a wealth of detail to support the findings. Technical opportunities, requirements, and challenges are detailed in this report (and in the recent report on the Workshop on Integrated Simulation). Science applications are described, along with mathematical and computational enabling technologies. Also see http://exascaleage.org/fes/ for more information.« less
  8. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest withmore » a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.« less
  9. Single Cavity Amplifier

  10. Investigation of the validity of quasilinear theory for electron Landau damping in a tokamak using a broad-band wave effect

    The quasilinear diffusion coefficient assuming a constant magnetic field along the electron orbit is widely used to describe electron Landau damping of waves in a tokamak where the magnitude of the magnetic field varies on a flux surface. To understand the impact of violating the constant magnetic field assumption, we introduce the effect of a broad-bandwidth wave spectrum which has been used in the past to validate quasilinear theory for the fast decorrelation process between resonances. By the reevaluation of the diffusion coefficient through the level of the phase integral for the tokamak geometry with the broad-band wave effect included,more » we identify the three acceptable errors for the use of the quasilinear diffusion coefficient.« less
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