## Transition characteristics of low-pressure discharges in a hollow cathode

Based on a two-dimensional (2-D) fluid model, the transition processes of discharges in a hollow cathode at low pressure are observed by changing three parameters, i.e., applied voltage U

_{0}, gas pressure p, and external circuit ballast resistance R_{b}. The voltage-current characteristic curves, electron density distributions, and electric potential distributions of different discharge operating points in a hollow cathode are obtained. The transition processes are characterized by the voltage-current characteristic curves, the electron density distributions, and the electrical potential distributions. The transition modes observed from the voltage-current characteristics include the low-current abnormal mode, normal mode, and high-current abnormal mode.more »