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  1. The broad coverage in this book combines material from philosophy, linguistics, psychology, and artificial intelligence. As a unifying force, the book focuses on conceptual graphs - networks of concepts and conceptual relations developed over the past twenty years. Important topics include: philosophical issues of knowledge and meaning; cognitive psychology in relation to linguistics and artificial intelligence; conceptual graphs as a knowledge representation language; applications for formal logic, plausible reasoning, heuristics, and computation; natural language parsing, generation, and pragmatics; knowledge-based systems, conceptual analysis, and database design and query; limits of conceptualization and unsolved problems. To accommodate readers from various disciplines, thismore » book is designed to be read at different levels. Contents: Philosophical basis; Psychological evidence; Conceptual graphs; Reasoning and computation; Language; Knowledge engineering; Epilog; Limits of conceptualization; Appendices; Index.« less
  2. This book is about knowledge systems. It is about how to design them, how to use them, and how to program them in a language called Prolog. A knowledge system is a computer program that solves, or helps to solve, problems that would otherwise have to be handled by a human expert alone. A knowledge system may be an expert system, a program that understands English (or another natural language), or a combination of the two. In addition it may make good use of a database management system to store parts of its knowledge. Knowledge systems are used to givemore » advise and to solve problems in many areas, such as business, science, technology, and law. The knowledge systems described in this book have been developed at IBM, and have been used for experiments in several subjects, including manufacturing planning, communication network management, evaluation of the ease of use of software packages, and machine translation from one natural language to another.« less

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