skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information
  1. Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM, UW-Madison Physics)

    The Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) focused on the further development, verification, validation, and application of two scientific computation programs, the NIMROD and M3D-C1 codes, for modeling macroscopic dynamics in magnetized plasma. Both NIMROD and M3D-C1 solve the mathematical equations that model two-fluid 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD). They are designed and optimized to be efficient and accurate for toroidal confinement physics calculations. The effort improved the fidelity of the physics models, the realism of the treatment of the surrounding vessel, coils, and other structures, the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithms, and the ability to scale calculations to thousands ofmore » processors in order to take advantage of leading-edge computers. The primary application areas of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMP), Edge Harmonic Oscillations (EHO), Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), Disruption Studies, Sawteeth and Stationary States, and Kinetic MHD and Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTM) are of concern for the international ITER experiment, which is under construction in France. The component of CEMM that is described in this report applied recently developed aspects of NIMROD to sawtooth and EHO dynamics, which occur in tokamak plasma confinement systems. In particular, the effort researched energetic-particle, two-fluid, and plasma-flow effects. The work included an effort to validate energetic-particle modeling using laboratory measurements and previous analysis of giant sawtooth oscillations, where energetic particles temporarily stabilize the system. A side effort that grew out of this work was benchmarking of the slab-geometry ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability computed by NIMROD's two-fluid modeling against analytical results. These fluid-model results were also compared with results from kinetic modeling to help quantify the range of validity for the two-fluid model. The EHO simulations show that sheared plasma flow plays a crucial role in saturating the underlying MHD instability.« less
  2. Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM), Final Technical Report for UW-Madison Engineering Physics

    The Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) focused on the further development, verification, validation, and application of two scientific computation programs, the NIMROD and M3D-C1 codes, for modeling macroscopic dynamics in magnetized plasma. Both NIMROD and M3D-C1 solve the mathematical equations that model two-fluid 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD). They are designed and optimized to be efficient and accurate for toroidal confinement physics calculations. The effort improved the fidelity of the physics models, the realism of the treatment of the surrounding vessel, coils, and other structures, the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithms, and the ability to scale calculations to thousands ofmore » processors in order to take advantage of leading-edge computers. The primary application areas of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMP), Edge Harmonic Oscillations (EHO), Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), Disruption Studies, Sawteeth and Stationary States, and Kinetic MHD and Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTM) are of concern for the international ITER experiment, which is under construction in France. The effort by the UW-Madison Engineering Physics component of CEMM improved the numerical methods in the NIMROD code with respect to modeling MHD interchange and two-fluid effects. It also improved the algorithm for solving large algebraic systems to enhance NIMROD's computational performance when running the code in parallel on increasing numbers of processor cores. The modeling efforts included a study of the nonlinear evolution of ballooning, and the findings were supported by analytical theory and computation. Numerical MHD modeling also examined the influences of two-fluid effects on ELMs and RMPs, where "two-fluid" refers to separation of electron dynamics from ion dynamics. Another related aspect considered the effects of a localized layer of electrical current density near the edge of the plasma confinement region. Two-fluid effects on resonant reconnecting instabilities were verified and applied to computations of sawtooth and drift-tearing dynamics.« less
  3. Parameter-Space Survey of Linear G-mode and Interchange in Extended Magnetohydrodynamics

    The extended magnetohydrodynamic stability of interchange modes is studied in two configurations. In slab geometry, a local dispersion relation for the gravitational interchange mode (g-mode) with three different extensions of the MHD model [P. Zhu, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 085005 (2008)] is analyzed. Our results delineate where drifts stablize the g-mode with gyroviscosity alone and with a two-fluid Ohm’s law alone. Including the two-fluid Ohm’s law produces an ion drift wave that interacts with the g-mode. This interaction then gives rise to a second instability at finite k y. A second instability is also observed in numerical extended MHD computations of linear interchange in cylindrical screw-pinch equilibria, the second configuration. Particularly with incomplete models, this mode limits the regions of stability for physically realistic conditions. But, applying a consistent two-temperature extended MHD model that includes the diamagnetic heat flux density (more » $$\vec{q}$$ *) makes the onset of the second mode occur at larger Hall parameter. For conditions relevant to the SSPX experiment [E.B. Hooper, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 113001 (2012)], significant stabilization is observed for Suydam parameters as large as unity (D s≲1).« less
  4. Stabilization of numerical interchange in spectral-element magnetohydrodynamics

    In this study, auxiliary numerical projections of the divergence of flow velocity and vorticity parallel to magnetic field are developed and tested for the purpose of suppressing unphysical interchange instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The numerical instability arises with equal-order C 0 finite- and spectral-element expansions of the flow velocity, magnetic field, and pressure and is sensitive to behavior at the limit of resolution. The auxiliary projections are motivated by physical field-line bending, and coercive responses to the projections are added to the flow-velocity equation. Their incomplete expansions are limited to the highest-order orthogonal polynomial in at least one coordinate ofmore » the spectral elements. Cylindrical eigenmode computations show that the projections induce convergence from the stable side with first-order ideal-MHD equations during h-refinement and p-refinement. Hyperbolic and parabolic projections and responses are compared, together with different methods for avoiding magnetic divergence error. Lastly, the projections are also shown to be effective in linear and nonlinear time-dependent computations with the NIMROD code [C. R. Sovinec, et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195 (2004) 355-386], provided that the projections introduce numerical dissipation.« less
  5. A current-driven resistive instability and its nonlinear effects in simulations of coaxial helicity injection in a tokamak

    An instability observed in whole-device, resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the driven phase of coaxial helicity injection in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment is identified as a current-driven resistive mode in an unusual geometry that transiently generates a current sheet. The mode consists of plasma flow velocity and magnetic field eddies in a tube aligned with the magnetic field at the surface of the injected magnetic flux. At low plasma temperatures (~10–20 eV), the mode is benign, but at high temperatures (~100 eV) its amplitude undergoes relaxation oscillations, broadening the layer of injected current and flow at the surface of themore » injected toroidal flux and background plasma. The poloidal-field structure is affected and the magnetic surface closure is generally prevented while the mode undergoes relaxation oscillations during injection. Furthermore, this study describes the mode and uses linearized numerical computations and an analytic slab model to identify the unstable mode.« less
    Cited by 1
  6. Nonlinear modeling of forced magnetic reconnection in slab geometry with NIMROD

    The nonlinear, extended-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code NIMROD is benchmarked with the theory of time-dependent forced magnetic reconnection induced by small resonant fields in slab geometry in the context of visco-resistive MHD modeling.
  7. Extended MHD modeling of tearing-driven magnetic relaxation

    Discrete relaxation events in reversed-field pinch relevant configurations are investigated numerically with nonlinear extended magnetohydrodynamic modeling, including the Hall term in Ohm’s law and first-order ion finite Larmor radius effects. Our results show variability among relaxation events, where the Hall dynamo effect may help or impede the MHD dynamo effect in relaxing the parallel current density profile. The competitive behavior arises from multi-helicity conditions where the dominant magnetic fluctuation is relatively small. The resulting changes in parallel current density and parallel flow are aligned in the core, consistent with experimental observations. Analysis of simulation results also confirms that force densitymore » from fluctuation-induced Reynolds stress arises subsequent to the drive from fluctuation-induced Lorentz force density. Transport of momentum density is found to be dominated by the fluctuation-induced Maxwell stress over most of the cross section with viscous and gyroviscous contributions being large in the edge region. The findings resolve a discrepancy with respect to the relative orientation of current density and flow relaxation, which had not been realized or investigated in Ref. [King et. al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 055905 (2012)], where only the magnitude of flow relaxation is actually consistent with experimental results.« less
  8. Analytical and numerical treatment of resistive drift instability in a plasma slab

    An analytic approach combining the effect of equilibrium diamagnetic flows and the finite ionsound gyroradius associated with electron−ion decoupling and kinetic Alfvén wave dispersion is derived to study resistive drift instabilities in a plasma slab. Linear numerical computations using the NIMROD code are performed with cold ions and hot electrons in a plasma slab with a doubly periodic box bounded by two perfectly conducting walls. A linearly unstable resistive drift mode is observed in computations with a growth rate that is consistent with the analytic dispersion relation. The resistive drift mode is expected to be suppressed by magnetic shear inmore » unbounded domains, but the mode is observed in numerical computations with and without magnetic shear. In the slab model, the finite slab thickness and the perfectly conducting boundary conditions are likely to account for the lack of suppression.« less
  9. Two-fluid and finite Larmor radius effects on helicity evolution in a plasma pinch

    In this, the evolution of magnetic energy, helicity, and hybrid helicity during nonlinear relaxation of a driven-damped plasma pinch is compared in visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics and two-fluid models with and without the ion gyroviscous stress tensor. Magnetic energy and helicity are supplied via a boundary electric field which initially balances the resistive dissipation, and the plasma undergoes multiple relaxation events during the nonlinear evolution. The magnetic helicity is well conserved relative to the magnetic energy over each event, which is short compared with the global resistive diffusion time. The magnetic energy decreases by roughly 1.5% of its initial value over amore » relaxation event, while the magnetic helicity changes by at most 0.2% of the initial value. The hybrid helicity is dominated by magnetic helicity in low-β pinch conditions and is also well conserved. Differences of less than 1% between magnetic helicity and hybrid helicity are observed with two-fluid modeling and result from cross helicity evolution. The cross helicity is found to change appreciably due to the first-order finite Larmor radius effects which have not been included in contemporary relaxation theories. The plasma current evolves towards the flat parallel current state predicted by Taylor relaxation theory but does not achieve it. Plasma flow develops significant structure for two-fluid models, and the flow perpendicular to the magnetic field is much more substantial than the flow along it.« less
  10. Mode penetration induced by transient magnetic perturbations

...

Search for:
All Records
Creator / Author
"Sovinec, C. R."

Refine by:
Resource Type
Availability
Publication Date
Creator / Author
Research Organization