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  1. Reference data are generated using the ab initio method to fit interatomic potentials for the W-Re system. The reference data include single phases of W and Re, strained structures, slabs, systems containing several concentrations of vacancies, systems containing various types of interstitial defects, melt structures, structures in the σ and χ phases, and structures containing several concentrations of solid solutions of Re in bcc W and W in hcp Re. Future work will start the fitting iterations.
  2. In the previous semi annual report, we explored the stability of interstitial clusters in W up to size seven. In this report, we study the binding of those clusters to Re, Os, and Ta atoms. For each cluster size, the three most stable configurations are considered to average the binding property. The average binding energy to a Re decreases from 0.79 eV for a size-1 cluster (a [111] dumbbell) to 0.65 eV for a size-7 cluster. For Os, the binding decreases from 1.61 eV for a [111] dumbbell to 1.34 eV for a size-7 cluster. Tantalum is repulsive to interstitialmore » clusters with binding energy ranges from -0.61 eV for a [111] dumbbell to -0.5 eV for a size-7 cluster.« less
  3. The effect of applied strains on the configurational evolution of self-interstitial clusters in BCC iron (Fe) is explored with atomistic simulations. A novel cluster configuration is discovered at low temperatures (<600 K), which consists of <110> dumbbells and <111> crowdions in a specific configuration, resulting in an immobile defect. The stability and diffusion of this cluster at higher temperatures is explored. In addition, an anisotropy distribution factor of a particular [hkl] interstitial loop within the family of loops is calculated as a function of strain. The results show that loop anisotropy is governed by the angle between the stress directionmore » and the orientation of the <111> crowdions in the loop, and directly linked to the stress induced preferred nucleation of self-interstitial atoms.« less
  4. The stability of tungsten self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters is studied using first-principles methods. Clusters from one to seven SIAs are systematically explored from 1264 unique configurations. Finite-size effect of the simulation cell is corrected based on the scaling of formation energy versus inverse volume cell. Furthermore, the accuracy of the calculations is improved by treating the 5p semicore states as valence states. Configurations of the three most stable clusters in each cluster size n are presented, which consist of parallel [111] dumbbells. The evolution of these clusters leading to small dislocation loops is discussed. The binding energy of size-n clustersmore » is analyzed relative to an n → (n-1) + 1 dissociation and is shown to increase with size. Extrapolation for n > 7 is presented using a dislocation loop model. In addition, the interaction of these clusters with a substitutional Re, Os, or Ta solute is explored by replacing one of the dumbbells with the solute. Re and Os strongly attract these clusters, but Ta strongly repels. The strongest interaction is found when the solute is located on the periphery of the cluster rather than in the middle. The magnitude of this interaction decreases with cluster size. Empirical fits to describe the trend of the solute binding energy are presented.« less
  5. Xe gas bubble superlattice formation is observed in irradiated uranium–10 wt% molybdenum (U10Mo) fuels. However, the thermodynamic properties of the bubbles (the relationship among bubble size, equilibrium Xe concentration, and bubble pressure) and the mechanisms of bubble growth and superlattice formation are not well known. In this work, molecular dynamics is used to study these properties and mechanisms. The results provide important inputs for quantitative mesoscale models of gas bubble evolution and fuel performance. In the molecular dynamics simulations, the embedded-atom method (EAM) potential of U10Mo-Xe (Smirnova et al. 2013) is employed. Initial gas bubbles with low Xe concentration aremore » generated in a U10Mo single crystal. Then Xe atom atoms are continuously added into the bubbles, and the evolution of pressure and dislocation emission around the bubbles is analyzed. The relationship between pressure, equilibrium Xe concentration, and radius of the bubbles is established. It was found that the gas bubble growth is accompanied by partial dislocation emission, which results in a star-shaped dislocation structure and an anisotropic stress field. The emitted partial dislocations have a Burgers vector along the <111> direction and a slip plane of (11-2). Dislocation loop punch-out was not observed. A tensile stress was found along <110> directions around the bubble, favoring the nucleation and formation of a face-centered cubic bubble superlattice in body-centered cubic U10Mo fuels.« less
  6. Density functional theory was employed to explore the stability of interstitial clusters in W up to size seven. For each cluster size, the most stable configuration consists of parallel dumbbells. For clusters larger than size three, parallel dumbbells prefer to form in a multilayer fashion, instead of a planar structure. For size-7 clusters, the most stable configuration is a complete octahedron. The binding energy of a [111] dumbbell to the most stable cluster increases with cluster size, namely 2.49, 3.68, 4.76, 4.82, 5.47, and 6.85 eV for clusters of size 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively. For amore » size-2 cluster, collinear dumbbells are still repulsive at the maximum allowable distance of 13.8 Å (the fifth neighbor along [111]). On the other hand, parallel dumbbells are strongly bound together. Two parallel dumbbells in which the axis-to-axis distance is within a cylindrical radius of 5.2 Å still exhibit a considerable binding of 0.28 eV. The most stable cluster in each size will be used to explore interactions with transmutation products.« less
  7. The objective of this work is to understand the accumulation of radiation damage created by primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) of various energies, at 300 K and for a dose rate of 10-4 dpa/s in bulk tungsten using the object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) method.
  8. Density functional theory calculations were performed to study the effects of H, He, Li and Be on the cohesion of W Σ3<110>{112} and Σ27<110>{552} grain boundaries (GBs). In Σ3, Li causes the strongest embrittlement, while in Σ27 it is He. In both GBs, H slightly reduces the cohesion. Compared to He and Li, H exhibits much stronger attractive binding with W that may inhibit subsequent segregation of Li and He to the GBs. In Σ3, Be decreases the cohesion. However, in Σ27, Be strengthens the cohesion in several interstitial positions by increasing the bonding across the interface or by inducingmore » GB restructuring.« less
  9. The influence of hydrostatic strain on point defect formation energy and threshold displacement energy (Ed) in body-centered cubic (BCC) tungsten was studied with molecular dynamics simulations. Two different tungsten potentials (Fikar and Juslin) were used. The minimum Ed direction calculated with the Fikar-potential was <100>, but with the Juslin-potential it was <111>. The most stable self-interstitial (SIA) configuration was a <111>-crowdion for both potentials. The stable SIA configuration did not change with applied strain. Varying the strain from compression to tension increased the vacancy formation energy but decreased the SIA formation energy. The SIA formation energy changed more significantly thanmore » for a vacancy such that Ed decreased with applied strain from compression to tension.« less

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"Setyawan, Wahyu"

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