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  1. Reducing NO{sub x} while maintaining boiler performance at TVA`s Johnsonville Steam Plant using constrained sequential optimization

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) utilizes boiler tuning as an integral part of their compliance strategy to meet the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. A desirable tuning solution should not only be effective for minimizing NO{sub x} emissions but also should offer opportunities for improved thermal performance leading to cost savings and a rapid return on investment. Guided by these objectives, TVA applied the ULTRAMAX Method, which utilizes a new technology, co-developed by EPRI and Ultramax Corp., called sequential process optimization. This technology makes possible immediate reductions in NO{sub x} while constraining other emission and thermalmore » performance parameters to avoid adverse effects. The ULTRAMAX Method consists of a methodology and the supporting computer software that builds on existing boiler system knowledge and guides the operator through a sequence of control parameter adjustments to achieve ever-improving levels of performance. It is utilized during normal operations and can be tailored to boiler systems of virtually any design. The software can be integrated with a data acquisition system to provide an operator advisory capability. This paper describes an application of sequential process optimization technology to six mid-sized, older-vintage coal-fired boilers. The optimization project took place from September through November 1994. The results were significant reductions of NO{sub x} from the previous baseline conditions at full load, with little more than two weeks of effort. In addition, heat rate and LOI reductions were achieved for some units.« less
  2. Simultaneous reduction of NOx and heat rate at TVA`s Johnsonville Steam Plant using sequential process optimization

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) utilizes boiler tuning as an integral part of their compliance strategy to meet the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. A desirable tuning solution should not only be effective for minimizing NOx emissions but also should offer opportunities for improved thermal performance leading to cost savings and a rapid return on investment. Guided by these objectives, TVA applied a new technology known as sequential process optimization which makes possible immediate reductions in NOx while constraining other emission and thermal performance parameters to avoid adverse effects. This technology, called the ULTRAMAX Method, wasmore » co-developed by EPRI and Ultramax Corp. The ULTRAMAX Method consists of a methodology and the supporting computer software that builds on existing boiler system knowledge and guides the operator through a sequence of control parameter adjustments to achieve ever-improving levels of performance. It is utilized during normal operations and can be tailored to boiler systems of virtually any design. The software can be integrated with a data acquisition system to provide an operator advisory capability. This paper describes an application of sequential process optimization technology to six mid-sized, older-vintage coal-fired boilers. The initial optimization project took place from September through November 1994 but the use of the technology is ongoing by TVA staff. The results were significant reductions of NOx from the previous baseline conditions at full load, with only a few weeks of effort. In addition, significant heat rate and LOI reductions were achieved at the same time.« less
  3. Illinois power`s operator advisory system to reduce heat rate and control NOx based on sequential optimization

    As part of its compliance strategy to the Clean Air Act, Illinois Power chose to reduce NOx emissions at its Hennepin Station to a minimum level via tuning. This strategy would result in the saving of $9.4 million in capital modifications. For the strategy to be successful, IP had to develop new operational settings for the boiler at maximum and minimum loads that did not substantially contribute to the system NOx inventory. In addition, it was important that the boiler be operated without a reduction in efficiency under these new settings. IP, working with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI),more » determined that these objectives were consistent with sequential process optimization (SPO). IP began a Tailored Collaboration project with EPRI to test use of the ULTRAMAX Method, which utilizes SPO, for minimization of NOx with simultaneous optimization of boiler performance. The ULTRAMAX Method of SPO consists of a methodology and the supporting computer software that builds on existing boiler system knowledge and guides the operator through a sequence of control parameter adjustments to achieve ever-improving levels of performance. It is utilized during normal operations and can be applied to boiler systems of virtually any design. The software can be integrated with a Distributed Control System (DCS) to provide an operator advisory capability. This paper describes the application of SPO to Hennepin Unit 2, a coal-fired boiler rated at 235 MW. An initial reduction of NOx emissions at full load exceeding 20% from previously untuned baseline conditions was achieved with less than two weeks of effort. Boiler efficiency was improved at the same time, as was LOI, in obtaining a lowest-cost balance to the operation of the boiler. Utilizing predictive models created during initial optimization, the SPO software is being integrated with the Unit 2 Westinghouse WDPF DCS to provide a continuous, on-line operator advisory system.« less
  4. Transportation energy conservation data book: edition 2

    Separate abstracts are prepared for the six main chapters on the various characteristics of the transportation sector. Chapter 7 provides the compilation of reference materials, and additionally, sections are devoted to a glossary, keyword index, and permuted-title index. (MCW)
  5. Transportation energy conservation data book: supplement IV

    This document is the fourth in a series of supplements to ORNL-5198, Transportation Energy Conservation Data Book: Edition I (EAPA 3:527). The Data Book series is being compiled and published by ORNL under contract with the Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). Data on transportation characteristics, energy consumption, and other related variables are presented in tabular or graphic form. For the user's reference, a glossary, a bibliography, energy conversion factors, and an index to information presented in Supplement IV are provided. Some of the specific items presented on transportation modal characteristics include fleetmore » vehicular stock data, automobile choice and ownership characteristics, information describing commuting and long distance travel patterns, new car sales by market segment, electric vehicle production, and statistics on bicycle stock and usage. Transportation energy demand projections in general, and in detail for the marine sector, are presented, as well as sales-weighted miles per gallon figures by weight of automobile, model year, and automobile producer. Other transportation-related information included in Supplement IV are a graphic presentation of President Carter's tax-rebate schedule, a comparison of the nominal and real price of gasoline, and a descriptive list of the current safety standards. Finally, detailed data on the US total population and its migration patterns are presented. The second edition of the TEC Data Book will update and integrate the information provided in Edition I and the Supplements. The planned date of publication for this document is October, 1977.« less
  6. Regional transportation energy conservation data book. Edition 1

    This document seeks to highlight regional differences in characteristics affecting transportation energy conservation in the US. The basic energy use data are presented in five modal chapters: highway, air, rail, marine, and pipeline. Each chapter contains information on stock of vehicles, transport networks, vehicle use, fuel use, and related data. Within modal chapters, data are presented at three levels of spatial disaggregation: selected metropolitan areas, states, and the 10 federal regions. Socioeconomic factors are considered relevant to transportation demand, focusing on the household as the basic consuming unit. Energy supply and aggregate energy use for states are considered. United Statesmore » energy use in transportation is placed in a world regional perspective. The Regional Data Book is a companion to the Transportation Energy Conservation Data Book which provides data at the national level.« less
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