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  1. The high-performance computing centers of the future will expand their roles as service providers, and as the machines scale up, so should the sizes of the communities they serve. National facilities must cultivate their users as much as they focus on operating machines reliably. The authors present five interrelated topic areas that are essential to expanding the value provided to those performing computational science.
  2. Empirical evaluation methods for visualizations have traditionally focused on assessing the outcome of the visual analytic process as opposed to characterizing how that process unfolds. There are only a handful of methods that can be used to systematically study how people use visualizations, making it difficult for researchers to capture and characterize the subtlety of cognitive and interaction behaviors users exhibit during visual analysis. To validate and improve visualization design, however, it is important for researchers to be able to assess and understand how users interact with visualization systems under realistic scenarios. This paper presents a methodology for modeling andmore » evaluating the behavior of users in exploratory visual analysis. We model visual exploration using a Markov chain process comprising transitions between mental, interaction, and computational states. These states and the transitions between them can be deduced from a variety of sources, including verbal transcripts, videos and audio recordings, and log files. This model enables the evaluator to characterize the cognitive and computational processes that are essential to insight acquisition in exploratory visual analysis, and reconstruct the dynamics of interaction between the user and the visualization system. We illustrate this model with two exemplar user studies, and demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative analytical tools it affords.« less
  3. The analysis of scientific simulation data enables scientists to derive insights from their simulations. This analysis of the simulation output can be performed at the same execution site as the simulation using the same resources or can be done at a different site. The optimal output frequency is challenging to decide and is often chosen empirically. We propose a mathematical formulation for choosing the optimal frequency of data transfer for analysis and the feasibility of performing the analysis, under the given resource constraints such as network bandwidth, disk space, available memory, and computation time. We propose formulations for two casesmore » of co-analysis -- local and remote. We consider various analyses features such as computation time, input data and memory requirement, importance of the analysis and minimum frequency required for performing the analysis. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach using molecular dynamics applications on the Mira and Edison supercomputers.« less
  4. Addressing the scientific grand challenges identified by the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Science’s programs alone demands a total leadership-class computing capability of 150 to 400 Pflops by the end of this decade. The successors to three of the DOE’s most powerful leadership-class machines are set to arrive in 2017 and 2018—the products of the Collaboration Oak Ridge Argonne Livermore (CORAL) initiative, a national laboratory–industry design/build approach to engineering nextgeneration petascale computers for grand challenge science. These mission-critical machines will enable discoveries in key scientific fields such as energy, biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials science, and high-performance computing, and servemore » as a milestone on the path to deploying exascale computing capabilities.« less
  5. In this work we perform in-situ visualization of molecular dynamics simulations, which can help scientists to visualize simulation output on-the-fly, without incurring storage overheads. We present a case study to couple LAMMPS, the large-scale molecular dynamics simulation code with vl3, our parallel framework for large-scale visualization and analysis. Our motivation is to identify effective approaches for covisualization and exploration of large-scale atomistic simulations at interactive frame rates.We propose a system of coupled libraries and describe its architecture, with an implementation that runs on GPU-based clusters. We present the results of strong and weak scalability experiments, as well as future researchmore » avenues based on our results.« less
  6. Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are commonly used for simulating the synthesis and ion diffusion of battery materials. A good battery anode material is determined by its capacity to store ion or other diffusers. However, modeling of ion diffusion dynamics and transport properties at large length and long time scales would be impossible with current MD codes. To analyze the fundamental properties of these materials, therefore, we turn to geometric and topological analysis of their structure. In this paper, we apply a novel technique inspired by discrete Morse theory to the Delaunay triangulation of the simulated geometry of a thermallymore » annealed carbon nanosphere. We utilize our computed structures to drive further geometric analysis to extract the interstitial diffusion structure as a single mesh. Our results provide a new approach to analyze the geometry of the simulated carbon nanosphere, and new insights into the role of carbon defect size and distribution in determining the charge capacity and charge dynamics of these carbon based battery materials.« less
  7. The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE SC) is the delivery of scientific discoveries and major scientific tools to transform our understanding of nature and to advance the energy, economic, and national security missions of the United States. To achieve these goals in today’s world requires investments in not only the traditional scientific endeavors of theory and experiment, but also in computational science and the facilities that support large-scale simulation and data analysis. The Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program addresses these challenges in the Office of Science. ASCR’s mission is to discover, develop, andmore » deploy computational and networking capabilities to analyze, model, simulate, and predict complex phenomena important to DOE. ASCR supports research in computational science, three high-performance computing (HPC) facilities — the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Leadership Computing Facilities at Argonne (ALCF) and Oak Ridge (OLCF) National Laboratories — and the Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) at Berkeley Lab. ASCR is guided by science needs as it develops research programs, computers, and networks at the leading edge of technologies. As we approach the era of exascale computing, technology changes are creating challenges for science programs in SC for those who need to use high performance computing and data systems effectively. Numerous significant modifications to today’s tools and techniques will be needed to realize the full potential of emerging computing systems and other novel computing architectures. To assess these needs and challenges, ASCR held a series of Exascale Requirements Reviews in 2015–2017, one with each of the six SC program offices,1 and a subsequent Crosscut Review that sought to integrate the findings from each. Participants at the reviews were drawn from the communities of leading domain scientists, experts in computer science and applied mathematics, ASCR facility staff, and DOE program managers in ASCR and the respective program offices. The purpose of these reviews was to identify mission-critical scientific problems within the DOE Office of Science (including experimental facilities) and determine the requirements for the exascale ecosystem that would be needed to address those challenges. The exascale ecosystem includes exascale computing systems, high-end data capabilities, efficient software at scale, libraries, tools, and other capabilities. This effort will contribute to the development of a strategic roadmap for ASCR compute and data facility investments and will help the ASCR Facility Division establish partnerships with Office of Science stakeholders. It will also inform the Office of Science research needs and agenda. The results of the six reviews have been published in reports available on the web at This report presents a summary of the individual reports and of common and crosscutting findings, and it identifies opportunities for productive collaborations among the DOE SC program offices.« less
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"Papka, Michael E."

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