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  1. Abstract not provided.
  2. Power transfer rate at a charging facility can be maximized by employing a feedback scheme. The state of charge (SOC) and temperature of the regenerative energy storage system (RESS) pack of a vehicle is monitored to determine the load due to the RESS pack. An optimal frequency that cancels the imaginary component of the input impedance for the output signal from a grid converter is calculated from the load of the RESS pack, and a frequency offset f* is made to the nominal frequency f.sub.0 of the grid converter output based on the resonance frequency of a magnetically coupled circuit.more » The optimal frequency can maximize the efficiency of the power transfer. Further, an optimal grid converter duty ratio d* can be derived from the charge rate of the RESS pack. The grid converter duty ratio d* regulates wireless power transfer (WPT) power level.« less
  3. A wireless power transfer overvoltage protection system is provided. The system includes a resonant receiving circuit. The resonant receiving circuit includes an inductor, a resonant capacitor and a first switching device. The first switching device is connected the ends of the inductor. The first switching device has a first state in which the ends of the inductor are electrically coupled to each other through the first switching device, and a second state in which the inductor and resonant capacitor are capable of resonating. The system further includes a control module configured to control the first switching device to switching betweenmore » the first state and the second state when the resonant receiving circuit is charging a load and a preset condition is satisfied and otherwise, the first switching device is maintained in the first state.« less
  4. Geminate recombination of 24 radical anions (M˙ ) with solvated protons (RH 2 +) was studied in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with pulse radiolysis. The recombination has two steps: (1) diffusion of M˙ and RH 2 + together to form intimate (contact and solvent separated) ion pairs, driven by Coulomb attraction; (2) annihilation of anions due to proton transfer (PT) from RH 2 + to M˙ . The non-exponential time-dependence of the geminate diffusion was determined. For all molecules protonated on O or N atoms the subsequent PT step is too fast (<0.2 ns) to measure, except for the anion ofmore » TCNE which did not undergo proton transfer. PT to C atoms was as slow as 70 ns and was always slow enough to be observable. A possible effect of charge delocalization on the PT rates could not be clearly separated from other factors. For 21 of the 24 molecules studied here, a free ion yield (71.6 ± 6.2 nmol J –1) comprising ~29% of the total, was formed. This yield of “Type I” free ions is independent of the PT rate because it arises entirely by escape from the initial distribution of ion pair distances without forming intimate ion pairs. Furthermore, three anions of oligo(9,9-dihexyl)fluorenes, F n˙ (n = 2–4) were able to escape from intimate ion-pairs to form additional yields of “Type II” free ions with escape rate constants near 3 × 10 6 s –1. These experiments find no evidence for an inverted region for proton transfer.« less
  5. Here, reduction potentials have been determined for two molecules, benzophenone (BzPh) and perylene (Per), effectively in the complete absence of electrolyte as well as in the presence of three different supporting electrolytes in the moderately polar solvent THF. A description of how this can be so, and qualifications, are described in the discussion section. The primary tool in this work, pulse radiolysis, measures electron transfer (ET) equilibria in solution to obtain differences in redox potentials. Voltammetry measures redox potentials by establishing ET equilibria at electrodes, but electrolytes are needed for current flow. Results here show that without electrolyte the redoxmore » potentials were 100–451 mV more negative than those with 100 mM electrolyte. These changes depended both on the molecule and the electrolyte. In THF the dominant contributor to stabilization of radical anions by electrolyte was ion pairing. An equation was derived to give changes in redox potentials when electrolyte is added in terms of ion pair dissociation constants and activity coefficients. Definite values were determined for energetics, ΔG d°, of ion pairing. Values of ΔG d° for pairs with TBA + give some doubt that it is a “weakly-coordinating cation.” Computations with DFT methods were moderately successful at describing the ion paring energies.« less
  6. Optical electron transfer (intervalence) transitions in radical anions of p-carborane oligomers attest to delocalization of electrons between two p-carboranes cages or a p-carborane and a phenyl ring. Oligomers of the 12 vertex p-carborane (C 2B 10H 12) cage, [12], with up to 3 cages were synthesized, as well as p-carboranes with one or two trimethylsilylphenyl groups, [6], attached to the carbon termini. Pulse radiolysis in tetrahydrofuran produced radical anions, determined redox potentials by equilibria and measured their absorption spectra. Density functional theory computations provided critical insight into the optical electron transfer bands and electron delocalization. One case, [6–12–6], showed bothmore » Robin–Day class II and III transitions. The class III transition resulted from a fully delocalized excess electron across both benzene rings and the central p-carborane, with an electronic coupling H ab = 0.46 eV between the cage and either benzene. This unprecedented finding shows that p-carborane bridges are not simply electron withdrawing insulators. In other cases with more than ∼1/2 of the excess electron localized on a [12], large cage distortions were triggered, producing a partially open cage with a nido-like structure. This resulted in class II transitions with similar Hab but massive reorganization energies. The computations also predicted delocalization in radical cations, but complexities in cation formation allowed only tentative experimental support of the predictions. Thus, the results with anions provide clear evidence for carborane conjugation that might be exploited in molecular wire materials, which are classically composed of all π-conjugated molecules.« less
  7. For this research, the nature of electron and hole polarons on poly(9,9-di-n-hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (pF) and a copolymer poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT) has been studied by chemical doping, pulse radiolysis, charge modulation spectroscopy, quantum chemical calculations, and microwave conductivity. While pF exhibits very similar behavior in all respects for the electron and the hole, this paper explores the hypothesis that the donor acceptor (push–pull) nature of F8BT will tend to localize charges. Optical spectra and quantum chemical calculations point to an electron localized on the thiadiazole unit in polar liquids but becoming more delocalized as the solvent polarity decreases. Indeed, in the nonpolar solventmore » benzene, the electron mobility is only 2.7 times lower than that of the hole, which conversely is shown to be delocalized in all environments and has a similar mobility to polarons on the homopolymer polyfluorene. Lastly, advantageous modifications to the optoelectronic properties of conjugated polymers that come about by using alternating donor acceptor repeat units have thus been shown to not significantly hinder charge transport despite the corrugated energy landscape along the backbone.« less
  8. The emission reduction benefits of EVs are dependent on the time and location of charging. An analysis of battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles under four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles shows that CO2 emissions are highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix. Availability of workplace charging generally results in lower emissions, while restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions.
  9. A transmit pad inspection device includes a magnetic coupling device, which includes an inductive circuit that is configured to magnetically couple to a primary circuit of a charging device in a transmit pad through an alternating current (AC) magnetic field. The inductive circuit functions as a secondary circuit for a set of magnetically coupled coils. The magnetic coupling device further includes a rectification circuit, and includes a controllable load bank or is configured to be connected to an external controllable load back. The transmit pad inspection device is configured to determine the efficiency of power transfer under various coupling conditions.more » In addition, the transmit pad inspection device can be configured to measure residual magnetic field and the frequency of the input current, and to determine whether the charging device has been installed properly.« less
  10. Utilities are proposing changes to residential rate structures to address concerns about lost revenue due to increased adoption of distributed solar generation. An investigation of the impacts of increased fixed charges, minimum bills and residential demand charges on PV and non-PV customer bills suggests that minimum bills more accurately capture utilities' revenue requirement than fixed charges, while not acting as a disincentive to efficiency or negatively impacting low-income customers.

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"Miller, John"

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