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  1. Scene kinetics mitigation using factor analysis with derivative factors.

    Line of sight jitter in staring sensor data combined with scene information can obscure critical information for change analysis or target detection. Consequently before the data analysis, the jitter effects must be significantly reduced. Conventional principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to obtain basis vectors for background estimation; however PCA requires image frames that contain the jitter variation that is to be modeled. Since jitter is usually chaotic and asymmetric, a data set containing all the variation without the changes to be detected is typically not available. An alternative approach, Scene Kinetics Mitigation, first obtains an image of themore » scene. Then it computes derivatives of that image in the horizontal and vertical directions. The basis set for estimation of the background and the jitter consists of the image and its derivative factors. This approach has several advantages including: (1) only a small number of images are required to develop the model, (2) the model can estimate backgrounds with jitter different from the input training images, (3) the method is particularly effective for sub-pixel jitter, and (4) the model can be developed from images before the change detection process. In addition the scores from projecting the factors on the background provide estimates of the jitter magnitude and direction for registration of the images. In this paper we will present a discussion of the theoretical basis for this technique, provide examples of its application, and discuss its limitations.« less
  2. Preprocessing Strategies to Improve MCR Analyses of Hyperspectral Images.

    Abstract not provided.
  3. Comparisons of prediction abilities of augmented classical least squares and partial least squares with realistic simulated data : effects of uncorrelated and correlated errors with nonlinearities.

    A manuscript describing this work summarized below has been submitted to Applied Spectroscopy. Comparisons of prediction models from the new ACLS and PLS multivariate spectral analysis methods were conducted using simulated data with deviations from the idealized model. Simulated uncorrelated concentration errors, and uncorrelated and correlated spectral noise were included to evaluate the methods on situations representative of experimental data. The simulations were based on pure spectral components derived from real near-infrared spectra of multicomponent dilute aqueous solutions containing glucose, urea, ethanol, and NaCl in the concentration range from 0-500 mg/dL. The statistical significance of differences was evaluated using themore » Wilcoxon signed rank test. The prediction abilities with nonlinearities present were similar for both calibration methods although concentration noise, number of samples, and spectral noise distribution sometimes affected one method more than the other. In the case of ideal errors and in the presence of nonlinear spectral responses, the differences between the standard error of predictions of the two methods were sometimes statistically significant, but the differences were always small in magnitude. Importantly, SRACLS was found to be competitive with PLS when component concentrations were only known for a single component. Thus, SRACLS has a distinct advantage over standard CLS methods that require that all spectral components be included in the model. In contrast to simulations with ideal error, SRACLS often generated models with superior prediction performance relative to PLS when the simulations were more realistic and included either non-uniform errors and/or correlated errors. Since the generalized ACLS algorithm is compatible with the PACLS method that allows rapid updating of models during prediction, the powerful combination of PACLS with ACLS is very promising for rapidly maintaining and transferring models for system drift, spectrometer differences, and unmodeled components without the need for recalibration. The comparisons under different noise assumptions in the simulations obtained during this investigation emphasize the need to use realistic simulations when making comparisons between various multivariate calibration methods. Clearly, the conclusions of the relative performance of various methods were found to be dependent on how realistic the spectral errors were in the simulated data. Results demonstrating the simplicity and power of ACLS relative to PLS are presented in the following section.« less
  4. Copy of Fluorescent Hyperspectral Imaging of Biological Samples: Evaluating the sensitivity of our quantitative measurement.

    Abstract not provided.
  5. Large scale tracking algorithms

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For highermore » resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.« less
  6. Vacuum Arc Remelting Pool Power Control.

    Abstract not provided.
  7. Hyperspectral imaging of microalgae using two-photon excitation.

    A considerable amount research is being conducted on microalgae, since microalgae are becoming a promising source of renewable energy. Most of this research is centered on lipid production in microalgae because microalgae produce triacylglycerol which is ideal for biodiesel fuels. Although we are interested in research to increase lipid production in algae, we are also interested in research to sustain healthy algal cultures in large scale biomass production farms or facilities. The early detection of fluctuations in algal health, productivity, and invasive predators must be developed to ensure that algae are an efficient and cost-effective source of biofuel. Therefore wemore » are developing technologies to monitor the health of algae using spectroscopic measurements in the field. To do this, we have proposed to spectroscopically monitor large algal cultivations using LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) remote sensing technology. Before we can deploy this type of technology, we must first characterize the spectral bio-signatures that are related to algal health. Recently, we have adapted our confocal hyperspectral imaging microscope at Sandia to have two-photon excitation capabilities using a chameleon tunable laser. We are using this microscope to understand the spectroscopic signatures necessary to characterize microalgae at the cellular level prior to using these signatures to classify the health of bulk samples, with the eventual goal of using of LIDAR to monitor large scale ponds and raceways. By imaging algal cultures using a tunable laser to excite at several different wavelengths we will be able to select the optimal excitation/emission wavelengths needed to characterize algal cultures. To analyze the hyperspectral images generated from this two-photon microscope, we are using Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) algorithms to extract the spectral signatures and their associated relative intensities from the data. For this presentation, I will show our two-photon hyperspectral imaging results on a variety of microalgae species and show how these results can be used to characterize algal ponds and raceways.« less
  8. Model-based electroslag remelting control for simultaneous, consistent and responsive melt rate and immersion depth control.

    No abstract prepared.
  9. Application specific compression : final report.

    With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achievedmore » by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.« less
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"Melgaard, David Kennett"

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