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  1. Axisymmetric (n=0) density fluctuations measured in the TCV tokamak are observed to possess a frequency f<sub>0</sub> which is either varying (radially dispersive oscillations) or a constant over a large fraction of the plasma minor radius (radially global oscillations) as reported in a companion paper [Z. Huang <i>et al.</i>, this issue]. Given that f<sub>0</sub> scales with the sound speed and given the poloidal structure of density fluctuations, these oscillations were interpreted as Geodesic Acoustic Modes, even though f<sub>0</sub> is in fact smaller than the local linear GAM frequency f<sub>GAM</sub> . In this work we employ the Eulerian gyrokinetic code GENE tomore » simulate TCV relevant conditions and investigate the nature properties of these oscillations, in particular their relation to the safety factor profile. Local and global simulations are carried out and a good qualitative agreement is observed between experiments and simulations. By varying also the plasma temperature and density profiles, we conclude that a variation of the edge safety factor alone is not sufficient to induce a transition from global to radially inhomogeneous oscillations, as was initially suggested by experimental results. This transition appears instead to be the combined result of variations in the different plasma profiles, collisionality and finite machine size effects. In conclusion, simulations also show that radially global GAM-like oscillations can be observed in all fluxes and fluctuation fields, suggesting that they are the result of a complex nonlinear process involving also finite toroidal mode numbers and not just linear global GAM eigenmodes.« less
  2. Here, we propose to apply a low dimensional manifold model to scientific data interpolation from regular and irregular samplings with a significant amount of missing information. The low dimensionality of the patch manifold for general scientific data sets has been used as a regularizer in a variational formulation. The problem is solved via alternating minimization with respect to the manifold and the data set, and the Laplace–Beltrami operator in the Euler–Lagrange equation is discretized using the weighted graph Laplacian. Various scientific data sets from different fields of study are used to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm on datamore » compression and interpolation from both regular and irregular samplings.« less
  3. We present two-dimensional hybrid kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic simulations of planned laser-ablation experiments in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD). Our results, based on parameters which have been validated in previous experiments, show that a parallel collisionless shock can begin forming within the available space. Carbon-debris ions that stream along the magnetic- eld direction with a blow-o speed of four times the Alfv en velocity excite strong magnetic uctuations, eventually transfering part of their kinetic energy to the surrounding hydrogen ions. This acceleration and compression of the background plasma creates a shock front, which satis es the Rankine{Hugoniot conditions and can therefore propagate onmore » its own. Furthermore, we analyze the upstream turbulence and show that it is dominated by the right-hand resonant instability.« less
  4. For a Z-pinch geometry, we report on the nonlinear redistribution of free energy across scales perpendicular to the magnetic guide field, for a turbulent plasma described in the framework of gyrokinetics. The analysis is performed using a local flux-surface approximation, in a regime dominated by electrostatic fluctuations driven by the entropy mode, with both ion and electron species being treated kinetically. To explore the anisotropic nature of the free energy redistribution caused by the emergence of zonal flows, we use a polar coordinate representation for the field-perpendicular directions and define an angular density for the scale flux. Positive values formore » the classically defined (angle integrated) scale flux, which denote a direct energy cascade, are shown to be also composed of negative angular sections, a fact that impacts our understanding of the backscatter of energy and the way in which it enters the modeling of sub-grid scales for turbulence. A definition for the flux of free energy across each perpendicular direction is introduced as well, which shows that the redistribution of energy in the presence of zonal flows is highly anisotropic.« less
  5. Pitch-angle scattering rates for cosmic-ray particles in MHD simulations with imbalanced turbulence are calculated for fully evolving electromagnetic turbulence. We compare with theoretical predictions derived from the quasilinear theory of cosmic-ray diffusion for an idealized slab spectrum and demonstrate how cross helicity affects the shape of the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient. Additional simulations in evolving magnetic fields or static field configurations provide evidence that the scattering anisotropy in imbalanced turbulence is not primarily due to coherence with propagating Alfvén waves, but an effect of the spatial structure of electric fields in cross-helical MHD turbulence.
  6. The additional computing power offered by the planned exascale facilities could be transformational across the spectrum of plasma and fusion research — provided that the new architectures can be efficiently applied to our problem space. The collaboration that will be required to succeed should be viewed as an opportunity to identify and exploit cross-disciplinary synergies. To assess the opportunities and requirements as part of the development of an overall strategy for computing in the exascale era, the Exascale Requirements Review meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) community was convened January 27–29, 2016, with participation from a broad range ofmore » fusion and plasma scientists, specialists in applied mathematics and computer science, and representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its major computing facilities. This report is a summary of that meeting and the preparatory activities for it and includes a wealth of detail to support the findings. Technical opportunities, requirements, and challenges are detailed in this report (and in the recent report on the Workshop on Integrated Simulation). Science applications are described, along with mathematical and computational enabling technologies. Also see for more information.« less
  7. Basic linear eigenmode spectra for electrostatic Langmuir waves and drift-kinetic slab ion temperature gradient modes are examined in a series of scenarios. Collisions are modeled via a Lenard-Bernstein collision operator which fundamentally alters the linear spectrum even for infinitesimal collisionality [Ng et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1974 (1999)]. A comparison between different discretization schemes reveals that a Hermite representation is superior for accurately resolving the spectra compared to a finite differences scheme using an equidistant velocity grid. Additionally, it is shown analytically that any even power of velocity space hyperdiffusion also produces a Case-Van Kampen spectrum which, in themore » limit of zero hyperdiffusivity, matches the collisionless Landau solutions.« less
  8. In magnetized plasma turbulence, the couplings of perpendicular spatial scales that arise due to the nonlinear interactions are analyzed from the perspective of the free-energy exchanges. The plasmas considered here, with appropriate ion or electron adiabatic electro-neutrality responses, are described by the gyrokinetic formalism in a toroidal magnetic geometry. Turbulence develops due to the electrostatic fluctuations driven by temperature gradient instabilities, either ion temperature gradient (ITG) or electron temperature gradient (ETG). The analysis consists in decomposing the system into a series of scale structures, while accounting separately for contributions made by modes possessing special symmetries (e.g., the zonal flow modes).more » The interaction of these scales is analyzed using the energy transfer functions, including a forward and backward decomposition, scale fluxes, and locality functions. The comparison between the ITG and ETG cases shows that ETG turbulence has a more pronounced classical turbulent behavior, exhibiting a stronger energy cascade, with implications for gyrokinetic turbulence modeling.« less
  9. For the first time, we have directly measured the transport of a vector magnetic field by isotropic turbulence in a high Reynolds number liquid metal flow. In analogy with direct measurements of the turbulent Reynolds stress (turbulent viscosity) that governs momentum transport, we have measured the turbulent electromotive force (emf) by simultaneously measuring three components of velocity and magnetic fields, and computed the correlations that lead to mean-field current generation. Furthermore, we show that this turbulent emf tends to oppose and cancel out the local current, acting to increase the effective resistivity of the medium, i.e., it acts as anmore » enhanced magnetic diffusivity. This has important implications for turbulent transport in astrophysical objects, particularly in dynamos and accretion disks.« less

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"Jenko, Frank"

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