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  1. MHD modeling of shell-pellet injection for disruption mitigation is carried out under the assumption of idealized delivery of the radiating payload to the core, neglecting the physics of shell ablation. The shell pellet method is designed to produce an inside-out thermal quench in which core thermal heat is radiated while outer flux surfaces remain intact, protecting the divertor from large conducted heat loads. In the simulation, good outer surfaces remain until the thermal quench is nearly complete, and a high radiated energy fraction is achieved. As a result, when the outermost surfaces are destroyed, runaway electron test orbits indicate thatmore » the rate of runaway electron loss is very fast compared with prior massive gas injection simulations, which is attributed to the very different current profile evolution that occurs with central cooling.« less
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  2. Simulations of massive gas injection (MGI) for disruption mitigation in DIII-D are carried out to compare the toroidal peaking of radiated power for the cases of one and two gas jets. The radiation toroidal peaking factor (TPF) results from a combination of the distribution of impurities and the distribution of heat flux associated with then =1 mode. The injected impurities are found to spread helically along field lines preferentially toward the high-field-side, which is explained in terms of a nozzle equation. In light of this mechanism, reversing the current direction also reverses the toroidal direction of impurity spreading. During themore » pre-thermal quench phase of the disruption, the toroidal peaking of radiated power is reduced in the straightforward manner by increasing from one to two gas jets. However, during the thermal quench phase, reduction in the TPF is achieved only for a particular arrangement of the two gas valves with respect to the field line pitch. In particular, the relationship between the two valve locations and the 1/1 mode phase is critical, where gas valve spacing that is coherent with 1/1 symmetry effectively reduces TPF.« less
  3. Measurements from the DIII-D tokamak show that toroidal radiation asymmetries during fast shutdown by massive gas injection (MGI) are largely driven by n = 1 magnetohydrodynamic modes during the thermal quench. The phenomenology of these modes, which are driven unstable by pro le changes as the thermal energy is quenched, is described based on detailed magnetic measurements. Here, the toroidal evolution of the dominantly n = 1 perturbation is understood to be a function of three parameters: the location of the MGI port, pre-MGI plasma rotation, and n = 1 error elds. Here, the resulting level of radiation asymmetry inmore » these DIII-D plasmas is modest, with a toroidal peaking factor (TPF) of 1:2 ± 0:1 for the total thermal quench energy and 1:4 ± 0:3 for the peak radiated power, both of which are below the estimated limit for ITER (TPF ≈ 2).« less
  4. The additional computing power offered by the planned exascale facilities could be transformational across the spectrum of plasma and fusion research — provided that the new architectures can be efficiently applied to our problem space. The collaboration that will be required to succeed should be viewed as an opportunity to identify and exploit cross-disciplinary synergies. To assess the opportunities and requirements as part of the development of an overall strategy for computing in the exascale era, the Exascale Requirements Review meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) community was convened January 27–29, 2016, with participation from a broad range ofmore » fusion and plasma scientists, specialists in applied mathematics and computer science, and representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its major computing facilities. This report is a summary of that meeting and the preparatory activities for it and includes a wealth of detail to support the findings. Technical opportunities, requirements, and challenges are detailed in this report (and in the recent report on the Workshop on Integrated Simulation). Science applications are described, along with mathematical and computational enabling technologies. Also see for more information.« less

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"Izzo, Valerie A."

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