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  1. Abstract not provided.
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  5. The goal of our project was to examine a novel quantum cascade laser design that should inherently increase the output power of the laser while simultaneously providing a broad tuning range. Such a laser source enables multiple chemical species identification with a single laser and/or very broad frequency coverage with a small number of different lasers, thus reducing the size and cost of laser based chemical detection systems. In our design concept, the discrete states in quantum cascade lasers are replaced by minibands made of multiple closely spaced electron levels. To facilitate the arduous task of designing miniband-to-miniband quantum cascademore » lasers, we developed a program that works in conjunction with our existing modeling software to completely automate the design process. Laser designs were grown, characterized, and iterated. The details of the automated design program and the measurement results are summarized in this report.« less
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  8. There is a general lack of compact electromagnetic radiation sources between 1 and 10 terahertz (THz). This a challenging spectral region lying between optical devices at high frequencies and electronic devices at low frequencies. While technologically very underdeveloped the THz region has the promise to be of significant technological importance, yet demonstrating its relevance has proven difficult due to the immaturity of the area. While the last decade has seen much experimental work in ultra-short pulsed terahertz sources, many applications will require continuous wave (cw) sources, which are just beginning to demonstrate adequate performance for application use. In this project,more » we proposed examination of two potential THz sources based on intersubband semiconductor transitions, which were as yet unproven. In particular we wished to explore quantum cascade lasers based sources and electronic based harmonic generators. Shortly after the beginning of the project, we shifted our emphasis to the quantum cascade lasers due to two events; the publication of the first THz quantum cascade laser by another group thereby proving feasibility, and the temporary shut down of the UC Santa Barbara free-electron lasers which were to be used as the pump source for the harmonic generation. The development efforts focused on two separate cascade laser thrusts. The ultimate goal of the first thrust was for a quantum cascade laser to simultaneously emit two mid-infrared frequencies differing by a few THz and to use these to pump a non-linear optical material to generate THz radiation via parametric interactions in a specifically engineered intersubband transition. While the final goal was not realized by the end of the project, many of the completed steps leading to the goal will be described in the report. The second thrust was to develop direct THz QC lasers operating at terahertz frequencies. This is simpler than a mixing approach, and has now been demonstrated by a few groups with wavelengths spanning 65-150 microns. We developed and refined the MBE growth for THz for both internally and externally designed QC lasers. Processing related issues continued to plague many of our demonstration efforts and will also be addressed in this report.« less
  9. Rotation sensors (gyros) and accelerometers are essential components for all precision-guided weapons and autonomous mobile surveillance platforms. MEMS gyro development has been based primarily on the properties of moving mass to sense rotation and has failed to keep pace with the concurrent development of MEMS accelerometers because the reduction of size and therefore mass is substantially more detrimental to the performance of gyros than to accelerometers. A small ({approx}0.2 cu in), robust ({approx}20,000g), inexpensive ({approx}$500), tactical grade performance ({approx}10-20 deg/hr.) gyro is vital for the successful implementation of the next generation of ''smart'' weapons and surveillance apparatus. The range ofmore » applications (relevant to Sandia's mission) that are substantially enhanced in capability or enabled by the availability of a gyro possessing the above attributes includes nuclear weapon guidance, fuzing, and safing; synthetic aperture radar (SAR) motion compensation; autonomous air and ground vehicles; gun-launched munitions; satellite control; and personnel tracking. For example, a gyro of this capability would open for consideration more fuzing options for earth-penetration weapons. The MEMS gyros currently available are lacking in one or more of the aforementioned attributes. An integrated optical gyro, however, possesses the potential of achieving all desired attributes. Optical gyros use the properties of light to sense rotation and require no moving mass. Only the individual optical elements required for the generation, detection, and control of light are susceptible to shock. Integrating these elements immensely enhances the gyro's robustness while achieving size and cost reduction. This project's goal, a joint effort between organizations 2300 and 1700, was to demonstrate an RMOG produced from a monolithic photonic integrated circuit coupled with a SiON waveguide resonator. During this LDRD program, we have developed the photonic elements necessary for a resonant micro-optical gyro. We individually designed an AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflector laser; GaAs phase modulator and GaAs photodiode detector. Furthermore, we have fabricated a breadboard gyroscope, which was used to confirm modeling and evaluate signal processing and control circuits.« less
  10. No abstract prepared.

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