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  1. Effect of scrape-off-layer current on reconstructed tokamak equilibrium

    Methods are described that extend fields from reconstructed equilibria to include scrape-off-layer current through extrapolated parametrized and experimental fits. The extrapolation includes both the effects of the toroidal-field and pressure gradients which produce scrape-off-layer current after recomputation of the Grad-Shafranov solution. To quantify the degree that inclusion of scrape-off-layer current modifies the equilibrium, the χ-squared goodness-of-fit parameter is calculated for cases with and without scrape-off-layer current. The change in χ-squared is found to be minor when scrape-off-layer current is included however flux surfaces are shifted by up to 3 cm. Here the impact on edge modes of these scrape-off-layer modificationsmore » is also found to be small and the importance of these methods to nonlinear computation is discussed.« less
  2. Verification of continuum drift kinetic equation solvers in NIMROD

    Verification of continuum solutions to the electron and ion drift kinetic equations (DKEs) in NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comp. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] is demonstrated through comparison with several neoclassical transport codes, most notably NEO [E. A. Belli and J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 015015 (2012)]. The DKE solutions use NIMROD's spatial representation, 2D finite-elements in the poloidal plane and a 1D Fourier expansion in toroidal angle. For 2D velocity space, a novel 1D expansion in finite elements is applied for the pitch angle dependence and a collocation grid is used for the normalized speedmore » coordinate. The full, linearized Coulomb collision operator is kept and shown to be important for obtaining quantitative results. Bootstrap currents, parallel ion flows, and radial particle and heat fluxes show quantitative agreement between NIMROD and NEO for a variety of tokamak equilibria. In addition, velocity space distribution function contours for ions and electrons show nearly identical detailed structure and agree quantitatively. A Θ-centered, implicit time discretization and a block-preconditioned, iterative linear algebra solver provide efficient electron and ion DKE solutions that ultimately will be used to obtain closures for NIMROD's evolving fluid model.« less
  3. Fusion Energy Sciences Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Fusion Energy Sciences, January 27-29, 2016, Gaithersburg, Maryland

    The additional computing power offered by the planned exascale facilities could be transformational across the spectrum of plasma and fusion research — provided that the new architectures can be efficiently applied to our problem space. The collaboration that will be required to succeed should be viewed as an opportunity to identify and exploit cross-disciplinary synergies. To assess the opportunities and requirements as part of the development of an overall strategy for computing in the exascale era, the Exascale Requirements Review meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) community was convened January 27–29, 2016, with participation from a broad range ofmore » fusion and plasma scientists, specialists in applied mathematics and computer science, and representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its major computing facilities. This report is a summary of that meeting and the preparatory activities for it and includes a wealth of detail to support the findings. Technical opportunities, requirements, and challenges are detailed in this report (and in the recent report on the Workshop on Integrated Simulation). Science applications are described, along with mathematical and computational enabling technologies. Also see http://exascaleage.org/fes/ for more information.« less
  4. Derivation and Implementation of Hybrid Fluid/Kinetic Model for Fusion Plasmas

    This is a final report for Dr. Eric Held’s Junior Faculty in Plasmas Physics grant entitled, “Derivation and Implementation of Hybrid Fluid/Kinetic Model for Fusion Plasmas”. Progress over the three years and six months of this project included work on analytical and numerical fronts.
  5. Self-consistent simulations of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics and profile evolution in stellarator configurations

    Self-consistent extended MHD framework is used to investigate nonlinear macroscopic dynamics of stellarator configurations. In these calculations, initial conditions are given by analytical 3-D vacuum solutions. Finite beta discharges in a straight stellarator are simulated. Vacuum magnetic fields are applied to produce stellarator-like rotational transform profiles with iota(0) ≤ 0.5 and iota(0) ≥ 0.5. The vacuum magnetic fields are either helically symmetric or spoiled by the presence of magnetic harmonics of incommensurate helicity. As heat is added to the system, pressure-driven instabilities are excited when a critical β is exceeded. These instabilities may grow to large amplitude and effectively terminatemore » the discharge, or they may saturate nonlinearly as the configuration evolves. In all of these studies, anisotropic heat conduction is allowed with κ{sub ∥}/κ{sub ⊥}=10{sup 4}−10{sup 7}.« less
  6. Verification of continuum drift kinetic equation solvers in NIMROD

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  7. Conductive electron heat flow along magnetic field lines

    In this work, a unified closure for the conductive electron heat flux along magnetic field lines is derived and examined. Both free-streaming and collisional pitch-angle scattering of electrons are present in the drift kinetic equation which is solved using an expansion in pitch-angle eigenfunctions (Legendre polynomials). The closure takes the form of a generic integral operator involving the electron temperature variation along a magnetic field line and the electron speed. Derived for arbitrary collisionality, the heat flux closure may be written in forms resembling previous collisional and collisionless expressions. Electrons with two to three times the thermal speed are shownmore » to carry heat for all collisionalities and thermal electrons make an important contribution to the heat flow in regimes of moderate to low collisionality. As a practical application, the flow of electron heat along a chaotic magnetic field is calculated in order to highlight the nonlocal nature of the closure which allows for heat to flow against local temperature gradients.« less
  8. Hybrid fluid/kinetic model for parallel heat conduction

    It is argued that in order to use fluid-like equations to model low frequency ({omega} < {nu}) phenomena such as neoclassical tearing modes in low collisionality ({nu} < {omega}{sub b}) tokamak plasmas, a Chapman-Enskog-like approach is most appropriate for developing an equation for the kinetic distortion (F) of the distribution function whose velocity-space moments lead to the needed fluid moment closure relations. Further, parallel heat conduction in a long collision mean free path regime can be described through a combination of a reduced phase space Chapman-Enskog-like approach for the kinetics and a multiple-time-scale analysis for the fluid and kinetic equations.

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"Held, E. D."

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