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  1. No abstract prepared.
  2. The ability to integrate metal and semiconductor micro-systems to perform highly complex functions, such as RF-MEMS, will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity, reflectivity, and mechanical properties. Three issues have prevented the proliferation of these systems: (1) warpage of active components due to through-thickness stress gradients, (2) limited component lifetimes due to fatigue, and (3) low yield strength. To address these issues, we focus on developing and implementing techniques to enable the direct study of the stress and microstructural evolution during electrodeposition and mechanical loading. The study of stress during electrodeposition of metal thin films ismore » being accomplished by integrating a multi-beam optical stress sensor into an electrodeposition chamber. By coupling the in-situ stress information with ex-situ microstructural analysis, a scientific understanding of the sources of stress during electrodeposition will be obtained. These results are providing a foundation upon which to develop a stress-gradient-free thin film directly applicable to the production of freestanding metal structures. The issues of fatigue and yield strength are being addressed by developing novel surface micromachined tensile and bend testers, by interferometry, and by TEM analysis. The MEMS tensile tester has a ''Bosch'' etched hole to allow for direct viewing of the microstructure in a TEM before, during, and after loading. This approach allows for the quantitative measurements of stress-strain relations while imaging dislocation motion, and determination of fracture nucleation in samples with well-known fatigue/strain histories. This technique facilitates the determination of the limits for classical deformation mechanisms and helps to formulate a new understanding of the mechanical response as the grain sizes are refined to a nanometer scale. Together, these studies will result in a science-based infrastructure to enhance the production of integrated metal--semiconductor systems and will directly impact RF MEMS and LIGA technologies at Sandia.« less
  3. Solid-state light sources emitting at wavelengths less than 300 nm would enable technological advances in many areas such as fluorescence-based biological agent detection, non-line-of-sight communications, water purification, and industrial processing including ink drying and epoxy curing. In this paper, we present our recent progress in the development of LEDs with emission between 237 and 297 nm. We will discuss growth and design issues of deep-UV LEDs, including transport in Si-doped AlGaN layers. The LEDs are designed for bottom emission so that improved heat sinking and light extraction can be achieved by flip chipping. To date, we have demonstrated 2.25 mWmore » of output power at 295 nm from 1 mm x 1 mm LEDs operated at 500 mA. Shorter wavelength LEDs emitting at 276 nm have achieved an output power of 1.3 mW at 400 mA. The heterostructure designs that we have employed have suppressed deep level emission to intensities that are up to 330 x lower than the primary quantum well emission.« less
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  6. No abstract prepared.
  7. The AlGaInN material system is used for virtually all advanced solid state lighting and short wavelength optoelectronic devices. Although metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has proven to be the workhorse deposition technique, several outstanding scientific and technical challenges remain, which hinder progress and keep RD&A costs high. The three most significant MOCVD challenges are: (1) Accurate temperature measurement; (2) Reliable and reproducible p-doping (Mg); and (3) Low dislocation density GaN material. To address challenge (1) we designed and tested (on reactor mockup) a multiwafer, dual wavelength, emissivity-correcting pyrometer (ECP) for AlGaInN MOCVD. This system simultaneously measures the reflectance (at 405more » and 550 nm) and emissivity-corrected temperature for each individual wafer, with the platen signal entirely rejected. To address challenge (2) we measured the MgCp{sub 2} + NH{sub 3} adduct condensation phase diagram from 65-115 C, at typical MOCVD concentrations. Results indicate that it requires temperatures of 80-100 C in order to prevent MgCp{sub 2} + NH{sub 3} adduct condensation. Modification and testing of our research reactor will not be complete until FY2005. A new commercial Veeco reactor was installed in early FY2004, and after qualification growth experiments were conducted to improve the GaN quality using a delayed recovery technique, which addresses challenge (3). Using a delayed recovery technique, the dislocation densities determined from x-ray diffraction were reduced from 2 x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} to 4 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}. We have also developed a model to simulate reflectance waveforms for GaN growth on sapphire.« less
  8. Our study (1) reported on the deformation response of nanocrystalline Ni during in situ dark-field transmission electron microscopy (DFTEM) straining experiments and showed what we view as direct and compelling evidence of grain boundary-mediated plasticity. Based on their analysis of the limited experimental data we presented, however, Chen and Yan (2) propose that the reported contrast changes more likely resulted from grain growth caused by electron irradiation and applied stress rather than from plastic deformation. Here, we give specific reasons why their assertions are incorrect and discuss how the measurement approaches they have used are inappropriate. Additionally, we present furthermore » evidence that supports our original conclusions. The method Chen and Yan employed to measure displacement merely probes the in-plane (two-dimensional) components of incremental strain occurring during the very short time interval shown [figure 3 in (1)] instead of the accumulated strain. As we noted explicitly in the supporting online material in (1), the loading was applied by pulsing the displacement manually. After each small displacement pulse, the monitored area always moved significantly within or even out of the field of view. Clear images could be obtained only when the sample position stabilized within the field of view, and at that time severe deformation was nearly complete. Thus, little incremental strain occurs during this short image sequence [figure 3 in (1)], as one might expect. We believe that the images shown in figure 3 of (1) are particularly valuable in understanding deformation in nanocrystalline materials. In general, the formation process of grain agglomerates simply occurred too fast to be recorded clearly. Moreover, instead of remaining constant after formation, the sizes of the grain agglomerates changed in a rather irregular manner in responding to the deformation and fracture process (see, for example, Fig. 1, B to D). This indicates that strong grain boundary-related activity occurred inside the grain agglomerates. Figure 3 in (1), a short (0.5 s) extract from more than 6 hours of videotaped experimentation (imaged ahead of cracks), not only reveals the formation process of a grain agglomerate, but also shows conclusive evidence for grain rotation and excludes the effect of overall sample rotation. It should be noted that other small grains still exhibit some minor contrast changes in figure 3 in (1). Hence, using them as reference points yields measurements that may not be accurate to {+-}1 nm [as Chen and Yan (2) claim in their analysis] and limits the accuracy of their conclusions. Chen and Yan also claim that no deformation has occurred, yet simultaneously state that the analysis has a deformation measurement error of 0.5%. This is simply not consistent; even small strains of this order may cause plastic deformation. In contrast with previous in situ TEM experiments (3-5), the special sample design adopted in our investigation (1) ensured that all deformation was primarily concentrated in a bandlike area ahead of the propagating crack. We found that these grain agglomerates were observed only in this bandlike thinning area as a response to the applied loads (Fig. 1B). No similar phenomena were detected under the electron beam alone or in stressed areas apart from the main deformation area, and these phenomena have not been reported during in situ observations of this same material made by other researchers (5). Subsequent cracks were always observed to follow this deformation area upon further displacement pulses (Fig. 1, C and D). This clearly indicates that the enlarged agglomerates do not result simply from electron irradiation plus stress, but rather from stress-induced deformation. In their comment, Chen and Yan claimed a linear relation between 'grain' area and time based on their measurements made from figure 3 in (1) and claimed that these measurements are exactly consistent with the classical grain growth equation. However, as we noted (1), the growth in size of this agglomerate is not isotropic and occurs in an irregular manner. For example, after bright contrast emerged from a grain about 6 nm in diameter, it remained well defined in size as a single, approximately equiaxed grain until t = 0.1 s (fig. S1). We have reproduced the 'grain growth' plot of Chen and Yan (Fig. 2) using our entire video image sequence (fig. S1). Clearly, the growth in area of the agglomerate is not consistent with linear grain growth. (Unfortunately, only a portion of these data could be included in the original paper for reasons of space.) Notably, Chen and Yan did not apply a similar 'grain growth' analysis to nearby grains; this would have yielded no information in support of their argument, as those grains show essentially no growth.« less
  9. We develop a reciprocal-space model that describes the (hkl) dependence of the broadened Bragg peakwidths produced by x-ray diffraction from a dislocated epilayer. We compare the model to experiments and find that it accurately describes the peakwidths of 16 different Bragg reflections in the [010] zone of both GaN and AlN heterolayers. Using lattice-distortion parameters determined by fitting the model to selected reflections, we estimate threading-dislocation densities for seven different GaN and AlGaN samples and find improved agreement with transmission electron microscopy measurements.
  10. No abstract prepared.

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"Follstaedt, David Martin"

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