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  1. Developing an operational capabilities index of the emergency services sector.

    In order to enhance the resilience of the Nation and its ability to protect itself in the face of natural and human-caused hazards, the ability of the critical infrastructure (CI) system to withstand specific threats and return to normal operations after degradation must be determined. To fully analyze the resilience of a region and the CI that resides within it, both the actual resilience of the individual CI and the capability of the Emergency Services Sector (ESS) to protect against and respond to potential hazards need to be considered. Thus, a regional resilience approach requires the comprehensive consideration of allmore » parts of the CI system as well as the characterization of emergency services. This characterization must generate reproducible results that can support decision making with regard to risk management, disaster response, business continuity, and community planning and management. To address these issues, Argonne National Laboratory, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Sector Specific Agency - Executive Management Office, developed a comprehensive methodology to create an Emergency Services Sector Capabilities Index (ESSCI). The ESSCI is a performance metric that ranges from 0 (low level of capabilities) to 100 (high). Because an emergency services program has a high ESSCI, however, does not mean that a specific event would not be able to affect a region or cause severe consequences. And because a program has a low ESSCI does not mean that a disruptive event would automatically lead to serious consequences in a region. Moreover, a score of 100 on the ESSCI is not the level of capability expected of emergency services programs; rather, it represents an optimal program that would rarely be observed. The ESSCI characterizes the state of preparedness of a jurisdiction in terms of emergency and risk management. Perhaps the index's primary benefit is that it can systematically capture, at a given point in time, the capabilities of a jurisdiction to protect itself from, mitigate, respond to, and recover from a potential incident. On the basis of this metric, an interactive tool - the ESSCI Dashboard - can identify scenarios for enhancement that can be implemented, and it can identify the repercussions of these scenarios on the jurisdiction. It can assess the capabilities of law enforcement, fire fighting, search and rescue, emergency medical services, hazardous materials response, dispatch/911, and emergency management services in a given jurisdiction and it can help guide those who need to prioritize what limited resources should be used to improve these capabilities. Furthermore, this tool can be used to compare the level of capabilities of various jurisdictions that have similar socioeconomic characteristics. It can thus help DHS define how it can support risk reduction and community preparedness at a national level. This tool aligns directly with Presidential Policy Directive 8 by giving a jurisdiction a metric of its ESS's capabilities and by promoting an interactive approach for defining options to improve preparedness and to effectively respond to a disruptive event. It can be used in combination with other CI performance metrics developed at Argonne National Laboratory, such as the vulnerability index and the resilience index for assessing regional resilience.« less
  2. Resilience: Theory and Application.

    There is strong agreement among policymakers, practitioners, and academic researchers that the concept of resilience must play a major role in assessing the extent to which various entities - critical infrastructure owners and operators, communities, regions, and the Nation - are prepared to respond to and recover from the full range of threats they face. Despite this agreement, consensus regarding important issues, such as how resilience should be defined, assessed, and measured, is lacking. The analysis presented here is part of a broader research effort to develop and implement assessments of resilience at the asset/facility and community/regional levels. The literaturemore » contains various definitions of resilience. Some studies have defined resilience as the ability of an entity to recover, or 'bounce back,' from the adverse effects of a natural or manmade threat. Such a definition assumes that actions taken prior to the occurrence of an adverse event - actions typically associated with resistance and anticipation - are not properly included as determinants of resilience. Other analyses, in contrast, include one or more of these actions in their definitions. To accommodate these different definitions, we recognize a subset of resistance- and anticipation-related actions that are taken based on the assumption that an adverse event is going to occur. Such actions are in the domain of resilience because they reduce both the immediate and longer-term adverse consequences that result from an adverse event. Recognizing resistance- and anticipation-related actions that take the adverse event as a given accommodates the set of resilience-related actions in a clear-cut manner. With these considerations in mind, resilience can be defined as: 'the ability of an entity - e.g., asset, organization, community, region - to anticipate, resist, absorb, respond to, adapt to, and recover from a disturbance.' Because critical infrastructure resilience is important both in its own right and because of its implications for community/regional resilience, it is especially important to develop a sound methodology for assessing resilience at the asset/facility level. This objective will be accomplished by collecting data on four broadly defined groups of resilience-enhancing measures: preparedness, mitigation measures, response capabilities, and recovery mechanisms. Table ES-1 illustrates how the six components that define resilience are connected to the actions that enhance the capacity of an entity to be resilient. The relationships illustrated in Table ES-1 provide the framework for developing a survey instrument that will be used to elicit the information required to assess resilience at the asset/facility level. The resilience of a community/region is a function of the resilience of its subsystems, including its critical infrastructures, economy, civil society, governance (including emergency services), and supply chains/dependencies. The number and complexity of these subsystems will make the measurement of resilience more challenging as we move from individual assets/facilities to the community/regional level (where critical infrastructure resilience is only one component). Specific challenges include uncertainty about relationships (e.g., the composition of specific supply chains), data gaps, and time and budget constraints that prevent collection of all of the information needed to construct a comprehensive assessment of the resilience of a specific community or region. These challenges can be addressed, at least partially, by adopting a 'systems approach' to the assessment of resilience. In a systems approach, the extent to which the analysis addresses the resilience of the individual subsystems can vary. Specifically, high-level systems analysis can be used to identify the most important lower-level systems. In turn, within the most important lower-level systems, site assessment data should be collected only on the most critical asset-level components about which the least is known. Implementation of the strategies outlined here to assess resilience will facilitate the following four objectives: (1) Develop a methodology and supporting products to assess resilience at the asset/facility level, (2) Develop a methodology and supporting products to assess resilience at the critical infrastructure sector level, (3) Provide resilience-related information to critical infrastructure owners/operators to facilitate risk-based resource decision making, and (4) Provide resilience-related information to State and local mission partners to support their risk-based resource decision making.« less
  3. Sorption by mineral surfaces: Rebirth of the classical condensation pathway for kerogen formation?

    What are the consequences for organic matter diagenesis of the observation in two recently published articles of a strong correlation between surface area and organic content in marine sediments? The findings suggest that the typical mode of occurrence of organic matter in marine sediments is as a monolayer (or equivalent concentration) sorbed to the surface of mineral grains. This comment considers the theoretical factors which may influence adsorption and propagation of polymeric organic matter on mineral surfaces, and looks at the likely diagnetic fate of adsorbed material. Both adsorption and condensation have been suggested as possible mechanisms for the preservationmore » of labile biopolymers, but neither process is satisfactory as a stand-alone mechanism; adsorption of monomers can merely retard their biodegradation, and condensation is not favoured in solution. However, if the two processes operate in concert, the criticisms levelled against each process considered in isolation are cancelled out, adsorption promoting condensation and condensation enhancing the strength of adsorption of the products. We suggest that the diagenetic modifications of surface adsorbed organic molecules will tend to strengthen their binding to the mineral surface, such that the geomacromolecules will evolve on the mineral surface towards strongly bound monolayers. The hypothesis overcomes many of the objections to the so-called classical condensation pathway of kerogen formation.« less
  4. Deuterium and selenium-77 NMR study of the condensed phases of hydrogen selenide

    Hydrogen selenide has been studied by /sup 2/H and /sup 77/Se NMR between 57 and 273 K, in order to characterize the molecular motions. In solid III the molecules are essentially rigid at approx. 77 K, but there is evidence for the onset of a slow motion just before the transition to phase II. The III equivalent to II phase transition shows hysteresis. At 77 K the /sup 77/Se rigid lattice shielding tensor components were found to be sigma/sub xx/ = - 240.7, sigma/sub yy/ = -9.5, and sigma/sub zz/ = 250.2 ppm relative to sigma/sub isotropic/. The /sup 2/Hmore » line shape at 77 K indicated a quadrupole coupling constant (e/sup 2/qQ/h) = 102.6 kHz and asymmetry parameter eta = 0.113, whereas in phase II at 120 K(e/sup 2/qQ/h) = 56.9 kHz, eta = 0 and in supercooled phase II at 85 K eta = 0.059. In the plastic crystalline phase I both /sup 2/H and /sup 77/Se line shapes are completely averaged by rapid overall rotations. Apparent activation energies of 3.5 kJ mol/sup -1/ (solid I) and 3.4 kJ mol/sup -1/ (liquid) were obtained from /sup 2/H T/sub 1/ measurements, and 4.3 kJ mol/sup -1/ (solid I) and 5.7 kJ mol/sup -1/ (liquid) were obtained from /sup 77/Se T/sub 1/ measurements. The /sup 77/Se spectra show a large deuterium isotope shift of 7 ppm per deuterium, and the chemical shift also shows large discontinuities at the gas-liquid-solid I phase transitions. 45 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.« less
  5. Experimental evidence for condensation reactions between sugars and proteins in carbonate skeletons

    Melanoidins, condensation products formed from protein and polysaccharide precursors, were once thought to be an important geological sink for organic carbon. The active microbial recycling of the precursors, coupled with an inability to demonstrate the formation of covalent linkages between amino acids and sugars in melanoidins, has shaped a powerful argument against this view. Yet, melanoidins may still be an abundant source of macromolecules in fossil biominerals such as shells, in which the proteins and polysaccharides are well protected from microbial degradation. The authors have modeled diagenetic changes in a biomineral by heating at 90C mixtures of protein, polysaccharides, andmore » finely ground calcite crystals in sealed glass vials. Changes to the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA, fraction V) were monitored by means of gel electrophoresis and immunology. In the presence of water, BSA was rapidly hydrolyzed and remained immunologically reactive for less than 9 h. Under anhydrous conditions the protein was immunologically reactive for the whole period of the experiment (1,281 h), unless mono- or disaccharide sugars were also present. In the presence of these reactive sugars, browning, a discrete increase in molecular weight of the protein, and a concomitant loss of antigenicity confirmed that the sugars were attaching covalently to the protein, forming melanoidins. The authors roughly estimate that, at the global scale, 2.4 {times} 10{sup 6} tons of calcified tissue matrix glycoproteins is processed annually through the melanoidin pathway. This amount would be equivalent to 7 per mil of the total flux of organic carbon into marine sediments.« less
  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of guest species in clathrate hydrates: Line-shape anisotropies, chemical shifts, and the determination of cage occupancy ratios and hydration numbers

    NMR spectra of the guest molecules PH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}Se, D{sub 2}Se, D{sub 2}S, CD{sub 3}F, CD{sub 3}Cl, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}D{sub 2}, and C{sub 2}D{sub 4} in their structure I clathrate hydrates have been obtained by use of {sup 2}H, {sup 19}F, {sup 31}P, and {sup 77}Se nuclei. Components due to guests in the small and large cages have been distinguished by using isotropic chemical shift and static line-shape anisotropy differences. Low-temperature magic angle spinning was used in some cases to resolve the two components. Guests in the small cages are invariably found to have a lower field isotropicmore » shift than those in the large cage. The static line shapes are isotropic for guests in the small spherical cages, whereas in the large oblate cages they have a residual anisotropy. Relative cage occupancy ratios {theta}{sub S}/{theta}{sub L} have been obtained from the observed NMR intensities, and together with similar results from previous NMR studies, these have been used to derive hydration numbers. This represents a new and nondestructive method of determining structure I hydrate compositions.« less
  7. sup 125 Te solid-state NMR spectra and secondary bonding arrangements for some salts of the trimethyltelluronium and triphenyltelluronium cations

    The preparation of several salts of the Me{sub 3}Te{sup +} and Ph{sub 3}Te{sup +} cations is reported along with {sup 125}Te static and CP/MAS solid-state NMR spectra of the Me{sub 3}Te{sup +} salts and {sup 125}Te CP/MAS spectra of the Ph{sub 3}Te{sup +} salts. In addition, crystal structures of the salts Me{sub 3}Te{sup +}Cl{sup {minus}} {times} H{sub 2}O (1), Me{sub 3}Te{sup +}I{sup {minus}} (2), Me{sub 3}Te{sup +}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} (3), Ph{sub 3}Te{sup +}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} (4), Ph{sub 3}Te{sup +}Cl{sup {minus}} {times}{1/2}CHCl{sub 3} (5), and (Ph{sub 3}Te){sub 2}SO{sub 4} {times} 5H{sub 2}O (6) have been determined to help in the interpretationmore » of some of the above spectra. It is shown that secondary bonding interactions with the anions have significant and substantial influence on the geometries of the cations and their crystal packings and on the resulting NMR spectra in terms of the tellurium shielding tensors and isotropic chemical shifts and in the presence of log-range spin {1/2} to spin 3/2 couplings. These couplings are indicative of long-range covalent interactions between the anions and cations in this series of compounds. In particular, the {sup 125}Te CP/MAS spectrum of Me{sub 3}Te{sup +}Cl{sup {minus}} {times} H{sub 2}O consists of a septet due to coupling to two equivalent chlorine atoms. In the case of 4 and 5 the presence of 4 and 2 crystallographically independent Te atoms is confirmed in the NMR spectra. 38 refs., 11 figs.« less
  8. Transportation energy conservation data book: Edition 4

    This is the fourth edition of the Transportation Energy Conservation Data Book, a statistical compendium compiled and published by ORNL for DOE. Secondary data on transportation characteristics by mode, on transportation energy use, and on other related variables are presented in tabular and/or graphic form. All major modes of transportation are represented: highway, air, rail, marine, and pipeline. The six main chapters focus on various characteristics of the transportation sector including (1) modal characteristics, (2) current energy use, efficiency and conservation, (3) projections of modal energy use, (4) impact of government activities, (5) supply and cost of energy, and (6)more » general demographic and economic characteristics. Included in the tables and figures are the following transportation stock and use statistics: number of vehicles, vehicle-miles traveled, passenger-miles and freight ton-miles, fleet characteristics, household automobile ownership, size mix of automobiles, vehicle travel characteristics, and commuting patterns. Energy characteristics presented include energy use by fuel source and transportation mode, energy intensity figures by mode, indirect energy use, production as a percent of consumption, imports as a percent of domestic production, energy prices from the wellhead to the retail outlet, and alternative fuels.« less
  9. Economic optimization of ARCO E. O. R. nitrogen plant

    In 1986 ARCO determined that for both technical and economic reasons their Block 31, Crane, Texas EOR Program of compressing and injecting CO/sub 2/ scrubbed boiler flue gas should be replaced with a nitrogen injection system. ARCO decided that the most effective means to achieve their objective was to pool their experience with that of a general contractor with specific experience related to air separation plant design. This made it practical to pre-order the gas turbine and prepare the plant layout, including piping tie-ins concurrently with the bid preparation for the cold boxes and compressors. Once the vendors for themore » cold box and compressor were selected, there were opportunities to enhance the specific design criteria of selected items in order to maximize operating flexibility of the facility.« less

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