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  1. Method of achieving ultra-wideband true-time-delay beam steering for active electronically scanned arrays

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to beam steering an array antenna by modifying intermediate frequency (IF) waveforms prior to conversion to RF signals. For each channel, a direct digital synthesis (DDS) component can be utilized to generate a waveform or modify amplitude, timing and phase of a waveform relative to another waveform, whereby the generation/modification can be performed prior to the IF input port of a mixer on each channel. A local oscillator (LO) signal can be utilized to commonly drive each of the mixers. After conversion at the RF output port of each of the mixers, each RFmore » signal can be transmitted by a respective antenna element in the antenna array. Initiation of transmission of each RF signal can be performed simultaneously at each antenna. The process can be reversed during receive whereby timing, amplitude, and phase of the received can be modified digitally post ADC conversion.« less
  2. A Spatial-frequency Method for Analyzing Antenna-to-Probe Interactions in Near-field Antenna Measurements.

    The measurement of the radiation characteristics of an antenna on a near-field range requires that the antenna under test be located very close to the near-field probe. Although the direct coupling is utilized for characterizing the near field, this close proximity also presents the opportunity for significant undesired interactions (for example, reflections) to occur between the antenna and the near-field probe. When uncompensated, these additional interactions will introduce error into the measurement, increasing the uncertainty in the final gain pattern obtained through the near-field-to-far-field transformation. Quantifying this gain-uncertainty contribution requires quantifying the various additional interactions. A method incorporating spatial-frequency analysismore » is described which allows the dominant interaction contributions to be easily identified and quantified. In addition to identifying the additional antenna-to-probe interactions, the method also allows identification and quantification of interactions with other nearby objects within the measurement room. Because the method is a spatial-frequency method, wide-bandwidth data is not required, and it can be applied even when data is available at only a single temporal frequency. This feature ensures that the method can be applied to narrow-band antennas, where a similar time-domain analysis would not be possible. - 3 - - 4 -« less
  3. Correcting Cross-polarization Monopulse Response of Reflector Antennas.

    The monopulse response of radar systems utilizing a short-focal-length offset-fed parabolic reflector can be compromised by depolarization of the signal by the target and by multipath scattering from nearby objects. The polarimetric behavior of this type of antenna is examined. The use of a shroud to reduce multipath interaction with nearby objects is also described. The mechanism through which man-made targets can introduce cross-polarization components into the scattered field is explained. Two kinds of polarization filters, suitable for linear polarization, are described for mitigating the effects of depolarization due to cross-polarization scattering. The benefit of the application of a polarizationmore » filter is demonstrated by modeling a monopulse radar system viewing a dihedral corner reflector. The model demonstrates dramatic performance improvement when the filter is used, showing that usable performance can be achieved even when the target depolarization is so severe that the cross-polarized signal is more than an order of magnitude stronger than the desired co-polarized signal. Relevant and useful reference material is also included in the form of appendices describing the relationship between different polarization representations and demonstrating the conditions under which Maxwell's equations can be considered to be scale-invariant. Acknowledgements This report is the result of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. -- CRADA No. SC08/01749. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affiliate of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and related mission systems, including the Predator (r) /Gray Eagle-series and Lynx (r) Multi-mode Radar. - 4 -« less
  4. Reduction of radar cross-section of a wind turbine

    The various technologies presented herein relate to formation of a wind turbine blade having a reduced radar signature in comparison with a turbine blade fabricated using conventional techniques. Various techniques and materials are presented to facilitate reduction in radar signature of a wind turbine blade, where such techniques and materials are amenable for incorporation into existing manufacturing techniques without degradation in mechanical or physical performance of the blade or major alteration of the blade profile.
  5. On the detection of crevasses in glacial ice with synthetic-aperture radar.

    The intent of this study is to provide an analysis of the scattering from a crevasse in Antarctic ice, utilizing a physics-based model for the scattering process. Of primary interest is a crevasse covered with a snow bridge, which makes the crevasse undetectable in visible-light images. It is demonstrated that a crevasse covered with a snow bridge can be visible in synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) images. The model of the crevasse and snow bridge incorporates a complex dielectric permittivity model for dry snow and ice that takes into account the density profile of the glacier. The surface structure is based on amore » fractal model that can produce sastrugi-like features found on the surface of Antarctic glaciers. Simulated phase histories, computed with the Shooting and Bouncing Ray (SBR) method, are processed into SAR images. The viability of the SBR method for predicting scattering from a crevasse covered with a snow bridge is demonstrated. Some suggestions for improving the model are given.« less
  6. Feasibility of antenna-to-antenna isolation measurements at S-band in the Facility for Antenna and Radar-cross-section Measurements (FARM)

    Frequency-domain antenna-coupling measurements performed in the compact-range room of the FARM, will actually be dominated by reflected components from the ceiling, floor, walls, etc., not the direct freespace coupling. Consequently, signal processing must be applied to the frequency-domain data to extract the direct free-space coupling. The analysis presented above demonstrates that it is possible to do so successfully.
  7. The application of taylor weighting, digital phase shifters, and digital attenuators to phased-array antennas.

    Application of Taylor weighting (taper) to an antenna aperture can achieve low peak sidelobes, but combining the Taylor weighting with quantized attenuators and phase shifters at each radiating element will impact the performance of a phased-array antenna. An examination of array performance is undertaken from the simple point of view of the characteristics of the array factor. Design rules and guidelines for determining the Taylor-weighting parameters, the number of bits required for the digital phase shifter, and the dynamic range and number of bits required for the digital attenuator are developed. For a radar application, when each element is fedmore » directly from a transmit/receive module, the total power radiated by the array will be reduced as a result of the taper. Consequently, the issue of whether to apply the taper on both transmit and receive configurations, or only on the receive configuration is examined with respect to two-way sidelobe performance.« less
  8. Radar cross section of triangular trihedral reflector with extended bottom plate.

    Trihedral corner reflectors are the preferred canonical target for SAR performance evaluation for many radar development programs. The conventional trihedrals have problems with substantially reduced Radar Cross Section (RCS) at low grazing angles, unless they are tilted forward, but in which case other problems arise. Consequently there is a need for better low grazing angle performance for trihedrals. This is facilitated by extending the bottom plate. A relevant analysis of RCS for an infinite ground plate is presented. Practical aspects are also discussed.
  9. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites,more » but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.« less
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