skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information
  1. SCIDAC - Simulation of Wave Interactions with MHD

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-ER54855: MIT participation in the Center for Simulation of Wave Interactions with MHD, led by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
  2. Quasilinear diffusion coefficients in a finite Larmor radius expansion for ion cyclotron heated plasmas

    In this study, a reduced model of quasilinear velocity diffusion by a small Larmor radius approximation is derived to couple the Maxwell’s equations and the Fokker Planck equation self-consistently for the ion cyclotron range of frequency waves in a tokamak. The reduced model ensures the important properties of the full model by Kennel-Engelmann diffusion, such as diffusion directions, wave polarizations, and H-theorem. The kinetic energy change (Wdot ) is used to derive the reduced model diffusion coefficients for the fundamental damping (n = 1) and the second harmonic damping (n = 2) to the lowest order of the finite Larmormore » radius expansion. The quasilinear diffusion coefficients are implemented in a coupled code (TORIC-CQL3D) with the equivalent reduced model of the dielectric tensor. We also present the simulations of the ITER minority heating scenario, in which the reduced model is verified within the allowable errors from the full model results.« less
  3. Review of recent experimental and modeling progress in the lower hybrid range of frequencies at ITER relevant parameters

    Progress in experiment and simulation capability in the lower hybrid range of frequencies at ITER relevant parameters is reviewed. Use of LH power in reactor devices is motivated in terms of its potential for efficient off-axis current profile control. Recent improvements in simulation capability including the development of full-wave field solvers, inclusion of the scrape off layer (SOL) in wave propagation codes, the use of coupled ray tracing/full-wave/3D (r v{sub ⊥}, v{sub //}) Fokker Planck models, and the inclusion of wave scattering as well as nonlinear broadening effects in ray tracing / Fokker Planck codes are discussed. Experimental and modelingmore » results are reviewed which are aimed at understanding the spectral gap problem in LH current drive (LHCD) and the density limit that has been observed and mitigated in LHCD experiments. Physics mechanisms that could be operative in these experiments are discussed, including toroidally induced variations in the parallel wavenumber, nonlinear broadening of the pump wave, scattering of LH waves from density fluctuations in the SOL, and spectral broadening at the plasma edge via full-wave effects.« less
  4. Review of recent experimental and modeling progress in the lower hybrid range of frequencies at ITER relevant parameters

    Progress in experiment and simulation capability in the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF) at ITER relevant parameters is reviewed. Use of LH power in reactor devices is motivated in terms of its potential for efficient off-axis current profile control. Recent improvements in simulation capability including the development of full-wave field solvers, inclusion of the scrape off layer (SOL) in wave propagation codes, the use of coupled ray tracing / full-wave / 3D (r v{sub ⊥}, v{sub ∥}) Fokker Planck models, and the inclusion of nonlinear broadening effects in ray tracing / Fokker Planck codes are discussed. Experimental and modelingmore » results are reviewed which are aimed at understanding the spectral gap problem in LH current drive (LHCD) and the density limit that has been observed in LHCD experiments. Physics mechanisms that could be operative in these experiments are discussed, including toroidally induced variations in the parallel wavenumber, nonlinear broadening of the pump wave, scattering of LH waves from density fluctuations in the SOL, and spectral broadening at the plasma edge via full-wave effects.« less
  5. Fusion Energy Sciences Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Fusion Energy Sciences, January 27-29, 2016, Gaithersburg, Maryland

    The additional computing power offered by the planned exascale facilities could be transformational across the spectrum of plasma and fusion research — provided that the new architectures can be efficiently applied to our problem space. The collaboration that will be required to succeed should be viewed as an opportunity to identify and exploit cross-disciplinary synergies. To assess the opportunities and requirements as part of the development of an overall strategy for computing in the exascale era, the Exascale Requirements Review meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) community was convened January 27–29, 2016, with participation from a broad range ofmore » fusion and plasma scientists, specialists in applied mathematics and computer science, and representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its major computing facilities. This report is a summary of that meeting and the preparatory activities for it and includes a wealth of detail to support the findings. Technical opportunities, requirements, and challenges are detailed in this report (and in the recent report on the Workshop on Integrated Simulation). Science applications are described, along with mathematical and computational enabling technologies. Also see http://exascaleage.org/fes/ for more information.« less
  6. Propagation And Damping Of High Harmonic Fast Waves And Electron Cyclotron Waves In The Nstx-U-Device

    For the spherical torus and for conventional tokamaks to be viable means of producing fusion energy there are two important requirements. The first is to heat the plasma in the experimental devices to high temperatures; preferably, to fusion relevant temperatures. The second is to drive a current in the plasma so that the fusion device operates in a steady-state mode. A pulsed fusion reactor for energy production is not desirable. A favored means to achieve both of these requirements is through the use of microwaves, commonly referred to as radio frequency waves. This proposal was to understand observations from themore » National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) device on radio frequency wave heating of the confined plasma during operations with high harmonic fast waves. The proposed research was also directed toward assisting in the optimization of the experimental modes of operation so as to maximize the heating efficiency. A detailed analysis of the experiments has shown that about one-third of the input radio frequency power does not make it into the core region of the plasma where heating is required. The losses are believed to occur primarily in the edge region where the radio frequency power is initially coupled into the plasma. Using sophisticated computational codes and theoretical models, that have been developed for the NSTX-U experimental program, this research quantified the physical processes which occur in the edge plasma and lead to a decrease in the heating efficiency. The effect of edge turbulence on the scattering of radio frequency waves was studied for waves in the ion cyclotron and electron cyclotron range of frequencies. For high harmonic fast waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, simulations were carried out using a full-wave solver that was extended to the vacuum vessel wall. These simulations successfully reproduced trends that were observed experimentally. This simulation capability was also used to study the interaction of high harmonic fast waves with the scrape-off layer plasma. More recently, a new technique has been developed for the calculation of radio frequency waves in toroidal geometry that enables the simultaneous incorporation of antenna geometry, plasma facing components, the scrape off-layer, and core propagation in the high harmonic fast wave regime. The effect of turbulent plasmas on the mode conversion of extraordinary electromagnetic waves in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies in the NSTX-U plasma has been studied theoretically. In the over-dense plasmas of NSTX-U, the traditional electromagnetic waves are not effective for delivering energy and momentum to the core plasma. However, electron Bernstein waves generated by mode conversion are efficient carriers of wave energy and momentum to the core. The mode conversion occurs in the turbulent edge region. A theory for mode conversion in such plasmas has been developed. The parameters that can optimize the mode conversion can be readily determined. Also, the model is useful for experimentalists to analyze observation on a shot-to-shot basis.« less
  7. Propagation And Damping Of High Harmonic Fast Waves And Electron Cyclotron Waves In The Nstx-U-Device

    For the spherical torus and for conventional tokamaks to be viable means of producing fusion energy there are two important requirements. The first is to heat the plasma in the experimental devices to high temperatures; preferably, to fusion relevant temperatures. The second is to drive a current in the plasma so that the fusion device operates in a steady-state mode. A pulsed fusion reactor for energy production is not desirable. A favored means to achieve both of these requirements is through the use of microwaves, commonly referred to as radio frequency waves. This proposal was to understand observations from themore » National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) device on radio frequency wave heating of the confined plasma during operations with high harmonic fast waves. The proposed research was also directed toward assisting in the optimization of the experimental modes of operation so as to maximize the heating efficiency. A detailed analysis of the experiments has shown that about one-third of the input radio frequency power does not make it into the core region of the plasma where heating is required. The losses are believed to occur primarily in the edge region where the radio frequency power is initially coupled into the plasma. Using sophisticated computational codes and theoretical models, that have been developed for the NSTX-U experimental program, this research quantified the physical processes which occur in the edge plasma and lead to a decrease in the heating efficiency. The effect of edge turbulence on the scattering of radio frequency waves was studied for waves in the ion cyclotron and electron cyclotron range of frequencies. For high harmonic fast waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, simulations were carried out using a full-wave solver that was extended to the vacuum vessel wall. These simulations successfully reproduced trends that were observed experimentally. This simulation capability was also used to study the interaction of high harmonic fast waves with the scrape-off layer plasma. More recently, a new technique has been developed for the calculation of radio frequency waves in toroidal geometry that enables the simultaneous incorporation of antenna geometry, plasma facing components, the scrape off-layer, and core propagation in the high harmonic fast wave regime. The effect of turbulent plasmas on the mode conversion of extraordinary electromagnetic waves in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies in the NSTX-U plasma has been studied theoretically. In the over-dense plasmas of NSTX-U, the traditional electromagnetic waves are not effective for delivering energy and momentum to the core plasma. However, electron Bernstein waves generated by mode conversion are efficient carriers of wave energy and momentum to the core. The mode conversion occurs in the turbulent edge region. A theory for mode conversion in such plasmas has been developed. The parameters that can optimize the mode conversion can be readily determined. Also, the model is useful for experimentalists to analyze observation on a shot-to-shot basis.« less
  8. Investigation of the validity of quasilinear theory for electron Landau damping in a tokamak using a broad-band wave effect

    The quasilinear diffusion coefficient assuming a constant magnetic field along the electron orbit is widely used to describe electron Landau damping of waves in a tokamak where the magnitude of the magnetic field varies on a flux surface. To understand the impact of violating the constant magnetic field assumption, we introduce the effect of a broad-bandwidth wave spectrum which has been used in the past to validate quasilinear theory for the fast decorrelation process between resonances. By the reevaluation of the diffusion coefficient through the level of the phase integral for the tokamak geometry with the broad-band wave effect included,more » we identify the three acceptable errors for the use of the quasilinear diffusion coefficient.« less
  9. Investigation of the validity of quasilinear theory for electron Landau damping in a tokamak using a broad-band wave effect

    The quasilinear diffusion coefficient assuming a constant magnetic field along the electron orbit is widely used to describe electron Landau damping of waves in a tokamak where the magnitude of the magnetic field varies on a flux surface. To understand the impact of violating the constant magnetic field assumption, we introduce the effect of a broad-bandwidth wave spectrum which has been used in the past to validate quasilinear theory for the fast decorrelation process between resonances. By the reevaluation of the diffusion coefficient through the level of the phase integral for the tokamak geometry with the broad-band wave effect included,more » we identify the three acceptable errors for the use of the quasilinear diffusion coefficient.« less

Search for:
All Records
Creator / Author
"Bonoli, Paul"

Refine by:
Resource Type
Availability
Publication Date
Creator / Author
Research Organization