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Creators/Authors contains: "Patterson, P.D."
  1. Illinois Power Company (IP) is a leader in implementing online dynamic optimization at its fossil-fired power stations. As part of the company's Phase II CAAA compliance plan, IP proceeded with similar online systems at its Baldwin, Wood River, Havana, and Vermilion stations for all 10 of its coal-fired units. These Operator Advisory Systems utilize the Ultramax Method{trademark} and Dynamic Optimization, known as ULTRAMAX{reg{underscore}sign}. Of particular interest are the installations on Baldwin Units 1 and 2, which are 575 MW B and W cyclone units. Throughout the power generation industry, there has been great concern about how to deal with highmore » NO{sub x} levels and meet EPA regulations while avoiding excessive capital costs. Based on previous applications of ULTRAMAX to cyclone units, a successful control strategy was employed for optimization of the Baldwin cyclones. These empirical model structures were then integrated with Baldwin's Distributed Control System (DCS), a Westinghouse WDPF interfaced with an Oil Systems Plant Information System (PI), to provide continuous online optimization. The online optimization system meets IP's objectives of NO{sub x} reduction and concurrent improvement in boiler efficiency. IP benefits by achieving compliance with emission regulations while securing cost savings and a rapid return on investment. Implementing ULTRAMAX as an integrated online solution on the Baldwin cyclone boilers, as well as Unit 3, a 595 MW ABB-CE tangential unit, assists the operator when conditions change, simplifies data collection and enables daily updating of boiler models. This continuous use of an integrated dynamic solution offers the opportunity for greater emissions control, fuel savings, and the ability to respond rapidly and flexibly to changes in operating conditions, compliance regulations and the market environment.« less
  2. The largest sales year for passenger cars and light trucks in the last eight years was 1985. The light truck share of the light duty vehicle market increased from 21.0 percent in 1978 to 27.9 percent in 1985. Light trucks, on average, are less efficient than passenger cars. As light trucks enlarged their share in an expanded market, the impact on overall fuel economy increases has been dampened. Several explanations have been given for the increased consumer purchases of light trucks: low cost for many models, the availability of 4-wheel drive, temporary import limits on Japanese auto imports and increasedmore » nameplate offerings. The light duty vehicle fuel economy gain of 5.7 MPG between 1978 and 1985 would have been 8.8 percent higher if there had not been any shift in share toward light trucks during that period.« less
  3. This data system, designed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), monitors information on every light-duty vehicle (automobiles and light-duty trucks) sold in the United States since model year 1976. The data are specified in two days. One way is on a model basis (i.e, engine and transmission combinations) and includes data on city, highway, and combined fuel economies; engine size; drive-train; fuel type (gasoline or diesel); interior volume; body type; and other vehicle attributes. The other way is on a make basis (e.g., Ford Escort, Oldsmobile 98) and includes datamore » on sales; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) size class; the sales-weighted fuel economy; sales-weighted interior volume; sales-weighted engine displacement (cid); curb weight; and other attributes. A unique identification number is assigned to a specific vehicle category. This identification number contains information on the manufacturer, the location of the manufacturer (domestic or import), and the sponsorship of the vehicle (domestic or import). Fuel economies, model year sales and various vehicle characteristics for every make of the 164 million light-duty vehicles sold in the US since model year 1976 can be obtained from this data system. 2 figs., 4 tabs.« less
  4. At the 1996 American Power Conference, Illinois Power Co. (IPC) and PowerMAX{reg_sign} personnel presented a paper which described boiler tuning at the Hennepin Power Station as an element in the IPC NO{sub x} control strategy to comply with the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. The paper included the initial optimization of a 235 MW unit and the subsequent plan to integrate the models and software with a Westinghouse WDPF distributed control system (DCS) to enable an on-line Operator Advisory System. The tuning and control solution implemented by IPC is the Ultramax Method{trademark} which utilizes an approach called Dynamic Optimizationmore » (DO). This technology makes possible improvements in boiler efficiency and NO{sub x} while constraining other emission and thermal performance parameters to avoid adverse effects. The Operator Advisory System has been implemented and in use since early September 1996. Models of a variety of operating scenarios are being created to advise best control parameter settings as conditions change, and to maintain the significant improvements in both NO{sub x} emissions and boiler efficiency that have been achieved. The models help the operator maintain the best combination of compliant and cost-effective operation. They enable the operator to respond to changing load and fuel conditions, burners out of service, mill conditions and other situations that affect boiler performance. Models are updated daily to reflect the current status of the boiler system. This paper is an update on the development and operation of this advanced system and the value it brings to more effective operation of the generating units at Hennepin. It describes the components of the Operator Advisory System, the operations strategy for effective operator use, and the benefits obtained from the use of the system.« less
  5. Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO) utilizes boiler tuning as an integral part of their compliance strategy to meet the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. A desirable tuning solution should not only be effective for minimizing NOx emissions but should also offer opportunities for improved thermal performance leading to cost savings and a rapid return on investment. Guided by these objectives, LILCO decided to apply a new EPRI co-developed technology described as Sequential Process Optimization (SPO) which makes possible readily identifiable reductions in NOx while constraining other emission and thermal performance parameters to avoid any adverse effects.more » Known as the ULTRAMAX Method this implementation of SPO consists of computer software and the supporting methodology which builds on existing boiler system knowledge and guides the operator through a sequence of control parameter adjustments to achieve ever-improving levels of performance. It is utilized during normal operations and can be applied to boiler systems of virtually any design. This paper describes the first application of this SPO technology to an oil-fired boiler system after many successes with coal-fired systems. NOx was reduced by about 30% from previously untuned baseline conditions at full load with less than two weeks of effort. The procedures and features of ULTRAMAX are also explained.« less
  6. This article describes how a utility reduced NO{sub x} and improved boiler performance using sequential process optimization software. Many utilities are endeavoring now to reduce NO{sub x} emissions as they look with apprehension toward January 1, 2000, the effective date for Phase 2 of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). At the Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Johnsonville Fossil Plant, plant managers wanted to update their 1950`s-vintage coal-fired units with low-NO{sub x} burners to comply with the Phase 2 NO{sub x} limitations. With limited capital available to replace existing burners, managers realized that nay low-NO{sub x} solution should not only bemore » effective for minimizing NO{sub x} emissions, but should also offer opportunities for improved thermal performance leading to cost savings and a rapid return on investment. Guided by these objectives, the field services group of the TVA`s clean air project investigated several options to reduce emissions at the lowest cost. The group decided to use a new technology, co-developed by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ultramax Corp., called sequential process optimization. Application of sequential process optimization makes possible immediate reductions in NO{sub x} while maintaining heat rate and causing no adverse effect on other thermal or emissions parameters.« less
  7. Separate abstracts are prepared for the six main chapters on the various characteristics of the transportation sector. Chapter 7 provides the compilation of reference materials, and additionally, sections are devoted to a glossary, keyword index, and permuted-title index. (MCW)
  8. This document is the fourth in a series of supplements to ORNL-5198, Transportation Energy Conservation Data Book: Edition I (EAPA 3:527). The Data Book series is being compiled and published by ORNL under contract with the Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). Data on transportation characteristics, energy consumption, and other related variables are presented in tabular or graphic form. For the user's reference, a glossary, a bibliography, energy conversion factors, and an index to information presented in Supplement IV are provided. Some of the specific items presented on transportation modal characteristics include fleetmore » vehicular stock data, automobile choice and ownership characteristics, information describing commuting and long distance travel patterns, new car sales by market segment, electric vehicle production, and statistics on bicycle stock and usage. Transportation energy demand projections in general, and in detail for the marine sector, are presented, as well as sales-weighted miles per gallon figures by weight of automobile, model year, and automobile producer. Other transportation-related information included in Supplement IV are a graphic presentation of President Carter's tax-rebate schedule, a comparison of the nominal and real price of gasoline, and a descriptive list of the current safety standards. Finally, detailed data on the US total population and its migration patterns are presented. The second edition of the TEC Data Book will update and integrate the information provided in Edition I and the Supplements. The planned date of publication for this document is October, 1977.« less
  9. In model year 1983, new car MPG declined for the first time in ten years. Accompanying this decline in MPG, the size of the average car increased, car weights and engine sized increased and diesel sales declined - all reversing their movements over the previous ten years. Using carline MPG estimates and sales figures, it is estimated that new car MPG declined 0.29 in 1983 after rising 6.70 MPG over the previous four years. Furthermore,it is estimated that actions by new car buyers would have lowered the 1983 MPG 0.40 MPG through the purchase of larger cars, cars with largermore » engines and fewer diesel engines if the manufacturers had not some fuel economy improvements and introduced some new high-MPG cars. A simple model of future fuel use increases as a friction of MPG levels below a specified level consistent with the CAFE standards shows that the costs of lower fuel economy will only gradually be felt, but that these costs will increase over time and persist for over a decade.« less
  10. Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO) utilizes boiler tuning as an integral part of their compliance strategy to meet the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. A desirable tuning solution should be effective not only for minimizing NO{sub x} emissions but also offer opportunities for improved thermal performance leading to cost savings and a rapid return on investment. Guided by these objectives, LILCO decided to apply a new technology, co-developed by EPRI, described as Sequential Process Optimization (SPO) which makes possible immediate reductions in NO{sub x} while constraining other emission and thermal performance parameters to avoid any adversemore » effects. Known as the ULTRAMAX Method this implementation of SPO consists of computer software and the supporting methodology which builds on existing boiler system knowledge and guides the operator through a sequence of control parameter adjustments to achieve ever-improving levels of performance. It is utilized during normal operations and can be applied to boiler systems of virtually any design. This paper describes an application of this SPO technology to an oil-fired boiler system after many successes with coal-fired systems. NO{sub x} was reduced by about 30% from previously untuned baseline conditions at full load with less than two weeks of effort.« less
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