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Creators/Authors contains: "Hu, P.S."
  1. The use of ITS-generated data as a data resource is a multifaceted challenge. The most effective way of confronting this challenge is to focus early efforts on localized areas with well-defined parameters. With the idea of starting with a well-defined problem, this research demonstrates the feasibility of using ITS-generated data to meet traffic information needs. Specifically, this study focused on two crucial traffic parameters: (1) total traffic volume, and (2) total VMT--basically, the information collected from the Traffic Monitoring Program. Traffic data collected from Florida and New York ITS deployments were used to test the communications and estimation procedures.
  2. As part of this research effort, we developed a new methodology for projecting elderly traffic crash fatalities. This methodology separates exposure to crashes from crash risk per se, and further divides exposure into two components, the number of miles driven and the likelihood of being a driver. This component structure permits conceptually different determinants of traffic fatalities to be projected separately and has thorough motivation in behavioral theory. It also permits finer targeting of particular aspects of projections that need improvement and closer linking of projections to possible policy instruments for influencing them.
  3. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA requires that tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation be transferred from the Highway Trust Fund to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund to individual states equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation at the state level by different vehicle types.more » This report documents this estimation procedure. For this estimation procedure, off-highway recreational fuel use was defined as Federally taxed gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, or special fuel used in recreational motorized vehicles on recreational trails or back country terrain. Fuel used in outdoor non-engine recreational equipment, such as camp stoves, heaters, and lanterns, was excluded from the analysis. Vehicle types included in this study were: pickup truck, light utility vehicle, motorcycle, all terrain vehicle (ATV), and snowmobile. Two factors governed the development of this estimation procedure. First, individual state shares of the total Trust Funds need to be developed using a uniform approach. Second, data needed for the estimation procedure should be publicly available and easily obtainable so that estimates for all subsequent years can be generated easily. Estimates were developed based on existing data sources. Adjustment factors were developed to take into account different vehicular off-highway recreational usage among states.« less
  4. In this country, personal travel accounts for more than half of total transportation energy use. Thus, a better understanding of personal travel demand allows one to better deliberate solutions to transportation problems. Specifically, policy makers rely on data about personal travel behavior to c the reliability, efficiency, capacity and flexibility of the nation`s transportation system to meet current and future demand. Knowledge about personal travel patterns is also important for ing the feasibility and efficiency of alternative ncw congestion-alleviating technologies (eg, high-speed rail magnetically levitated trains),and the air quality impacts and energy security implications of different policies. Economic and socio-demographicmore » changes have contributed to a significant revolution in personal travel behavior, and, have consequently precipitated an unforeseen demand on the current transportation infrastructure. This paper examines how socio-demogaphic changes have affected American`s travel patterns, and how changes in personal travel behavior might influence the current capacity and the level of services of our transportation systems.« less
  5. In this country, personal travel accounts for more than half of total transportation energy use. Thus, a better understanding of personal travel demand allows one to better deliberate solutions to transportation problems. Specifically, policy makers rely on data about personal travel behavior to c the reliability, efficiency, capacity and flexibility of the nation's transportation system to meet current and future demand. Knowledge about personal travel patterns is also important for ing the feasibility and efficiency of alternative ncw congestion-alleviating technologies (eg, high-speed rail magnetically levitated trains),and the air quality impacts and energy security implications of different policies. Economic and socio-demographicmore » changes have contributed to a significant revolution in personal travel behavior, and, have consequently precipitated an unforeseen demand on the current transportation infrastructure. This paper examines how socio-demogaphic changes have affected American's travel patterns, and how changes in personal travel behavior might influence the current capacity and the level of services of our transportation systems.« less
  6. This summary covers more than fifteen years of light-duty vehicle data (i.e., automobiles and light trucks combined) from model year 1976 through the first six months of model year 1991, on a nameplate level (e.g., Chevrolet Corsica is a nameplate). Included in this summary are estimated sales-weighted fuel economies, sales, and market shares of new automobiles and new light trucks sold in each model year. Comparisons and observations are made on the trends from one model year to the next.
  7. In 1982, Congress authorized the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP), a Federal grant-in-aid program to improve commercial motor carrier safety. MCSAP was reauthorized in 1986, 1991, and 1998. In June 1997, in anticipation of and preparation for reauthorization, a MCSAP Formula Workgroup convened to analyze requirements for a new allocation formula and to develop the formula. Because of provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), a major change in approach was to consider including performance (i.e., safety improvements) in the formula. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) actively participated in the Workgroup activities, provided technical assistancemore » in evaluating factors and conducting scenario analyses, prepared regulatory language for the Federal Register Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), analyzed NPRM comments and recommended responses to the comments, assisted with preparation of the Federal Register Final Rule, developed the final spreadsheet, and prepared an informational brochure on MCSAP for use by the States. The allocation of MCSAP funds for FY2001 will use the new formula.« less
  8. Sales of automobiles jumped dramatically from 10,211,058 units in model year 1984 to 10,968,515 units in model year 1985, an incease of 7.4%. Light trucks had an even more striking increase in sales, rising 17.2% from the previous model year. The sales-weighted fuel economy for the entire automobile fleet continued to climb in model year 1985, from 26.3 mpg in model year 1984 to 27.0 mpg in this model year. The sales-weighted fuel economies in light trucks have remained relatively constant since model year 1979. The trends of various vehicle characteristics from model year 1978 through 1985 are illustrated. 34more » figs., 45 tabs.« less
  9. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA required that certain tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-road recreation be transferred from the Highway Trust Funds to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund to individual States equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1993 to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-road recreation in the State level bymore » different vehicle types. A modification of the methodology developed by ORNL has been used to apportion funds to the States since that time.« less
  10. Data on travel behavior are important to determine a nation's present travel needs and to plan for meeting its needs in the future. More specifically, data are needed to: (1) plan for the development and maintenance of the nation's highway systems; (2) examine the availability and use of different means of transportation; (3) identify demographic and socioeconomic factors that influence travel behavior; (4) evaluate the adequacy of existing transportation facilities and estimate future transportation needs and facility requirements; and, (5) assess impacts of various policy initiatives. In the United States, the Department of Transportation (DOT) is continuing its quest formore » more current and better data. Under the coordination of DOT's Federal Highway Administration, the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Study (NPTS) was implemented to collect data to collect data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel. Commercial and institutional travel were not included in the survey.« less
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